“2 Years” – A Danish Underground Publication from 1943

Preface

two years - coverThe Communist Party of Denmark (DKP) in the hot summer of 1943 published the illegal Book “2 years”. On the occasion of the 80th anniversary in 2023, the book is now being reissued digitally for an international audience.

In the bibliography The Occupation Period’s illegal magazines and books 1940 – 1945, published in 1954 by the Royal Library, the following is noted on page 193:

2 Years. Spoken and written about the war between the USSR and Germany from the beginning of the war on the 22nd June 1941 to the second anniversary of the 22nd June 1943. The material for this book is clippings from Copenhagen newspapers. [Ed. by D.K.P.]. (71 PP. – dual-sided – with silkscreen drawings and covers). 4to. (DKK. 10,-). [Circulation: 10,000 EXP.].

Optimism and demonstration of organizational strength

The book is a demonstration of the illegal DKP’s faith in the future and their organizational strength. “2 Years” exudes both conviction in the defeat of fascism and confidence in one’s own powers. There is a clear signal that this is a well-deserved anniversary publication for the Soviet Union’s and the Red Army’s achievements on the battlefield and an equally well-deserved disappointment for the ”Drang nach Osten” of the master-race.

Expensive watercolour paper was used, which had not been easy to obtain in such large quantities, and the book is richly decorated with fine colour illustrations, some even on thin tissue paper, by artist and resistance fighter Viggo Rohde, whose skilful and apt caricatures of the top figures in the Nazi menagerie stand as sharp political comments to the text and testify to the special understated humour that the Danes love so much.

The circulation of 10,000 copies shows not only that the Party fully mastered the exceedingly difficult logistical conditions of illegality in terms of paper supply, storage and transport, but also that the printing process itself required a well-coordinated collective effort. Several different typewriters and typists were involved, and the page setup itself had a meticulously prepared template that had to be followed closely in order for everything to fit. After the duplication of the text pages, which in itself is a feat, illustrations with up to three runs in different silkscreen frames have had to be added and the many red headings on the text pages have had to go into the right places. Then all 10,000 sets had to be assembled in the correct page order and prepared with covers and stapling. Only then did the huge task of distribution throughout the country start.

The physical copy of “2 Years” has now been photographed so that the original paper version can be studied page by page while the text can be read under each page in graphically corresponding formatted versions in Russian and English respectively as well as in a linguistically and grammatically edited version in modern Danish. An extensive historical set of notes about the period has also been added, and the book’s illustrations have been given visual text-to-speech descriptions for the blind and visually impaired.

The unknown editor’s hand

The newspaper clippings in the book follow the overall chronology of the course of the war, but our unknown editors have made certain dissemination moves if several of the major battles on the Eastern Front took place simultaneously and some of the battles unfolded over a long period of time. “2 Years” thus contains both sections that overlap in time and sections that deal with individual battles more in depth over a longer period of time, although they are also mentioned in the more overall chronological presentation. Quotes from Hitler’s speeches as well as statements by other top Nazis have been given their own section in the middle of the book.

A historical document with a message for the present

The perspective in the legal Danish press’ coverage of the war is exclusively German. Virtually exclusively Nazi sources, military and political, are referenced, garnished with articles by correspondents from various Nazi magazines. In fairness, however, it must be said that after the expected regime change in Moscow had failed, the lightning war had been dragging on and Hitler’s grandiose blitzkrieg rhetoric had been silenced while the presumptuous Russians, in pure denial of reality, did not run out of weapons and fought on despite their long-established defeat on the pages of the newspapers, there are exceptional examples of a lone editor deciding to enquire as to what Moscow radio could say about the events on the battlefield.

Next European War - 14th of March 1939, American Magazine

“American Magazine”, 14th of March 1939

Today, 80 years later, with this rare collection of newspaper clippings, we have a unique historical document of the official Danish press’ portrayal of the war actions on the Eastern Front and thus also a thought-provoking insight into the anti-Russian narratives and Nazi war propaganda of the 1940s, which today’s readers can use to compare with the war propaganda and the narratives that the Western main stream media are currently overflowing with in connection with the ongoing confrontation between the NATO-countries and Russia, which takes place in Ukraine and western Russia.

Honour to whom honour is due!

The launch of the digital edition of “2 Years” takes place on the 80th anniversary – on the 22nd of June 2023 – in connection with the Horserød-Stutthof Association’s annual commemoration of the Danish Communists on whom the hunt began in the early morning hours of the 22nd of June 1941 by the Danish police on the orders of the Gestapo, all the while Hitler’s SS Panzer divisions and the Einsatzgruppen rolled across the borders of the Soviet Union and initiated the struggle between humanity and barbarism, the outcome of which was to determine the future of mankind.

At home, the DKP was well prepared for the predicted illegality and immediately set about organizing the resistance struggle in Denmark, in which the Communists became the backbone. The Soviet Union began the life-and-death defensive struggle that would last until the 9th of May 1945, when the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany was signed in Berlin with the Red Banner of Victory waving over the former Hitler’s Reich Chancellery.

“2 Years” is reissued to honour the communist resistance fighters, so many of whom came to sacrifice their lives; either shot dead in battle, tortured to death, gunned down at the execution site in Ryvangen, or exterminated by hunger, mistreatment and slavery in monstrous German concentration camps and prisons. The survivours paid with ruined lives and the trauma, passed on to the next generation. But that there were any survivors at all is thanks to the efforts of the Soviet Union, and we would like to make a stand so that this fact does not become forgotten.

May this reissue serve to spread and strengthen the collective memory of the Great Victory of the Soviet Union and the Red Army over fascism. The victory, which had to be paid for with unimaginable destruction and suffering and the lives of more than 27 million people, and, which, ever since 1945, has been tried to be rewritten by the NATo-countries, led by the United States and Great Britain – distorted and diminished, indeed, in recent decades completely removed from history and replaced with its own projection, so that we now see examples of the Soviet Union being portrayed as the aggressor that triggered the Second World War!

Collective memory and the present

During World War II, the illegal press in all Nazi-occupied countries was a necessary and indispensable means of breaking the press censorship and propaganda, and getting conveyed the truth and proper attitudes to the general population. It was through the illegal press that the courage for independent thinking was supported and rooted, that resistance was spurred and the voice of conscience ”go into your time!” for more and more people became stronger, than all the threats and fears of the reprisals.

Our collective memory of fascism and the struggle against it, both intellectually and physically, is one of the most important weapons we have against the de-facto censorship with the big-tech industry as an instrument, and against the Pentagon-developed cognitive warfare that main stream media, cultural elites and social science imperceptibly prepare us with. This modern soft-power hydra has at its disposal means and methods so advanced that blessed Dr. Goebbels turns in his grave out of envy.

Fortunately, we have not yet reached quite so far along the fascist slide that a decidedly illegal press is necessary. One can still find real information in alterative media. But just as the racist anti-Semitic Nurnberg laws of 1935 did not mention gas chambers and the industrial extermination of millions of people, so does the current Russophobic propaganda and racist euphemism ”cancel-culture” not yet call for direct physical extermination.

A nation that forgets its history has no future. Read, remember, and “go into your time”!


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2 Years

two years - cover



two years - page 01

2
YEARS

Said and written about the war between the Soviet Union and Germany from the start of the war on the 22nd of June 1941 and until the 2-year marker on the 22nd of June 1943.

 

The materials for this book are cuttings from the Copenhagen newspapers.



two years - page 02

Hitler:

“Weighed down by heavy concerns, condemned to month-long silence, the hour has now come when I can finally speak openly.(1)

 

22nd of June 1941.


1) Adolf Hitler – Proclamation to the German People. Berlin, June 22, 1941The hour has finally come for me, weighed down by heavy burdens and sentenced to remain silent for months, to speak openly.



23rd of June 1941.

The war against Russia opened

 

The war is initiated with German tank assaults and aerial bombardments. Attacks from the Finnish and Romanian territories.

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“At this moment an advance is completed, the greatest in extent and scope the world has yet seen. In union with Finnish comrades, the soldiers of the Narvik’s victor stand on the northern Arctic Ocean. German divisions under the command of the conqueror of Norway protect with the Finnish heroes of freedom under their marshal the Finnish soil. From East Prussia to the Carpathians stretch the formations of the German Eastern Front. On the banks of the Pruth, on the lower reaches of the Danube, even to the shores of the Black Sea, German and Romanian soldiers unite under the head of state Antonescu.

The task of this front is therefore no longer the protection of individual countries, but the securing of Europe and thus the salvation of all people.”(1)

(From Hitler’s Proclamation, 22nd of June 1941)


1) Adolf Hitler – Proclamation to the German People. Berlin, 22nd of June 1941German Volk! At this moment, the greatest concentration which the world has ever seen in terms of scope and dimensions is taking place. In unison with the Finnish comrades, the victorious warriors of Narvik stand at the Arctic Ocean. German divisions under the command of the conqueror of Norway protect Finnish soil, together with the heroic Finnish freedom fighters under their marshal. The formations of the German front in the east reach from East Prussia to the Carpathian Mountains. On the banks of the Pruth river, the lower reaches of the Danube, up to the shores of the Black Sea, German and Romanian soldiers unite under General Antonescu.
The mission of this front, therefore, is no longer the protection of individual countries, but the securing of Europe and, hence, the salvation of all.



23rd of June 1941.

–––The German army’s colossal up-march of troops against the Soviet Union seems, based on the latest reports from the 2000 kilometre long frontline, to develop into the most typical lightning war offensive(1).

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26th of June 1941.

–––as in Poland, the German Air Force conducted a merciless war of annihilation against the Russian Air Force, and already now we can say that the Germans have won the air superiority over Russia.

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27th of June 1941.

Russian divisions often have to fight only with the infantry, as they have lost all armoured vehicles.

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27th of June 1941.

–––The rumours, that a revolutionary movement is spreading in Moscow and other Russian cities, are gaining more and more trust within the local circles, which have good connections to the Soviets. It rouses more and more astonishment that still nothing is heard from Stalin. We remind of certain rumours in the days just before the break-out of the war, that Stalin was in favour of attempting to seek a settlement with Germany as to avoid conflict.

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4.


1) Here we meet the first of the book’s many fine colour illustrations in silkscreen by the artist and resistance fighter Viggo Rohde.
The satire here is monochrome and placed at the top of the page as a comment on the text just below about “the most typical lightning war offensive”.
The “lightning-war-Germans” are shown as a large dirty-brown wine mountain snail that has leisurely covered the distance from left to right part of the page pulling a wide lightning-like zig-zag slime trail behind it.



3rd of July 1941.

Hitler and Napoleon

Campaign launched on the same date, the tempo differs.

––––––––––––––

–––on the march towards Moscow, the Germans follow the same route as Napoleon. They even launched the campaign on the same date as the French Emperor, the 22nd of June, but while Napoleon needed 2 months reaching Moscow, with what we have witnessed so far, it is likely that the same number of weeks will be sufficient for the Germans to get there. It is hardly too much of a risk to predict that Hitler’s armies will be inside Moscow on Sunday the 13th of this month.

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5.




25th June 1941.

Molotov deposed.

In the diplomatic community here rumours circulate, that the Soviet-Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Molotov, is said to have been deposed.

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25th June 1941.

–––Finally “Börsenzeitung”(1) places its trust in the famous Russian lack of organisation, not least regarding the traffic problem, which for the modern warfare is so immensely important.

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27th of June 1941.

Revolutionary unrest in the Soviet Union.

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Especially grave in Ukraine.

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–––according to reports received in this diplomatic community, revolutionary formations are in great haste being formed on a large scale in various zones in the most populated parts of districts subjugated to the Soviet government. It is reported that the terror which is applied against the people of these regions, and which has been carried out for a prolonged time, has been significantly intensified since yesterday, and that the government has difficulties in suppressing the revolutionary movement that threatens to ignite at any moment. The situation is reported to be particularly grave in Ukraine, where the people are anxiously awaiting to be liberated by the German armies.

–––––

27th of June 1941.

Vichy-rumours about Stalin.

–––In the last 24 hours rumours have begun to circulate in Vichy(2) that Stalin is said to have disappeared. Pointing at the peculiarity of the fact that the head of the Soviet-Russian government has not in any way made himself heard since the the break out of the war against Germany.(3) He hasn’t even made a proclamation to the army or an address to the people. Some, usually well-informed, observers are more and more inclined to assume that he may be held captive by a certain Opposition, which in the most recent period is said to have strongly manifested itself in Moscow and, which has not been without having a part in the developments that led to the war.-

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6.


1) Börsenzeitung is most probably the German financial newspaper Berliner Börsen Zeitung

2) Vichy France (French: Régime de Vichy; 10th of July 1940 – 9th of August 1944), officially the French State (État français), was the French state headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Officially independent, but with half of its territory occupied under the harsh terms of the armistice with Nazi Germany, it adopted a policy of collaboration. (source: Wikipedia)

3) After the outbreak of war, it took 11 days for Stalin’s official proclamation to the Soviet people to go on the air on the radio on the 3rd of July. On the the 22nd of June its was Molotov who declared that the Soviet Union was under attack. Stalin spent time with meetings and activities in order to understand the scale of the threat and organize the defence of the USSR. But it was 11 long days, and they gave rise to many rumours, as we see it reflected on these pages. After Stalin’s speech, the rumours suddenly died down and we hear no more speculation about revolutionary uprisings or executions of senior officers.

Below we reproduce the opening and closing of the speech, which puts the impending war in historical perspective. The speech additionally outlines the various defence measures, and the population is called upon to organize partisan movement in the German-occupied territories.

The speech can be read in full in Russian or in English. A recent publication fo the manuscript of the speech and an accompanying article is also or interest.

J. V. Stalin – Radio Broadcast, the 3rd of July 1941

Comrades! Citizens! Brothers and sisters! Men of our Army and Navy!

My words are addressed to you, dear friends!

The perfidious military attack by Hitlerite Germany on our Fatherland, begun on June 22, is continuing. In spite of the heroic resistance of the Red Army, and although the enemy’s finest divisions and finest air force units have already been smashed and have met their doom on the field of battle, the enemy continues to push forward, hurling fresh forces to the front. Hitler’s troops have succeeded in capturing Lithuania, a considerable part of Latvia, the western part of Byelorussia and part of Western Ukraine. The fascist aircraft are extending the range of their operations, bombing Murmansk, Orsha, Moghilev, Smolensk, Kiev, Odessa, Sevastopol. Grave danger overhangs our country.

How could it have happened that our glorious Red Army surrendered a number of our cities and districts to the fascist armies? Is it really true that the German-fascist troops are invincible, as the braggart fascist propagandists are ceaselessly blaring forth?

Of course not! History shows that there are no invincible armies and never have been. Napoleon’s army was considered invincible, but it was beaten successively by the armies of Russia, England and Germany. Kaiser Wilhelm’s German army in the period of the First Imperialist War was also considered invincible, but it was beaten several times by Russian and Anglo-French troops, and was finally smashed by the Anglo-French forces. The same must be said of Hitler’s German-fascist army of to-day. This army had not yet met with serious resistance on the continent of Europe. Only on our territory has it met with serious resistance. And if as a result of this resistance the finest divisions of Hitler’s German-fascist army have been defeated by our Red Army, this means that it too can be smashed and will be smashed, as were the armies of Napoleon and Wilhelm.

As to part of our territory having nevertheless been seized by the German-fascist troops, this is chiefly due to the fact that the war of fascist Germany against the U.S.S.R. began under conditions that were favourable for the German forces and unfavourable for the Soviet forces. The fact of the matter is that the troops of Germany, a country at war, were already fully mobilized, and the 170 divisions brought up to the Soviet frontiers and hurled by Germany against the U.S.S.R. were in a state of complete readiness, only awaiting the signal to move into action, whereas the Soviet troops had still to effect mobilization and move up to the frontiers. Of no little importance in this respect was the fact that fascist Germany suddenly and treacherously violated the non-aggression pact which she had concluded in 1939 with the U.S.S.R., regardless of the circumstance that she would be regarded as the aggressor by the whole world. Naturally, our peace-loving country, not wishing to take the initiative in breaking the pact, could not resort to perfidy.

It may be asked, how could the Soviet Government have consented to conclude a non-aggression pact with such perfidious people, such fiends as Hitler and Ribbentrop? Was this not an error on the part of the Soviet Government? Of course not! Non-aggression pacts are pacts of peace between two states. It was such a pact that Germany proposed to us in 1939. Could the Soviet Government have declined such a proposal? I think that not a single peace-loving state could decline a peace treaty with a neighbouring state even though the latter were headed by such monsters and cannibals as Hitler and Ribbentrop. But that, of course, only on the one indispensable condition-that this peace treaty did not jeopardize, either directly or indirectly, the territorial integrity, independence and honour of the peace-loving state. As is well known, the non-aggression pact between Germany and the U.S.S.R. was precisely such a pact.

What did we gain by concluding the non-aggression pact with Germany? We secured our country peace for a year and a half and the opportunity of preparing our forces to repulse fascist Germany should she risk an attack on our country despite the pact. This was a definite advantage for us and a disadvantage for fascist Germany.

What has fascist Germany gained and what has she lost by perfidiously tearing up the pact and attacking the U.S.S.R.? She has gained a certain advantageous position for her troops for a short period of time, but she has lost politically by exposing herself in the eyes of the entire world as a bloodthirsty aggressor. There can be no doubt that this short-lived military gain for Germany is only an episode, while the tremendous political gain of the U.S.S.R. is a weighty and lasting factor that is bound to forth the basis for the development of outstanding military successes of the Red Army in the war with fascist Germany.

The war with fascist Germany cannot be considered an ordinary war. It is not only a war between two armies, it is also a great war of the entire Soviet people against the German-fascist armies. The aim of this national patriotic war in defence of our country against the fascist oppressors is not only to eliminate the danger hanging over our country, but also to aid all the European peoples groaning under the yoke of German fascism. In this war of liberation we shall not be alone. In this great war we shall have true allies in the peoples of Europe and America, including the German people which is enslaved by the Hitlerite misrulers. Our war for the freedom of our country will merge with the struggle of the peoples of Europe and America for their independence, for democratic liberties. It will be a united front of the peoples standing for freedom and against enslavement and threats of enslavement by Hitler’s fascist armies. In this connection the historic utterance of the British Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, regarding aid to the Soviet Union, and the declaration of the United States Government signifying readiness to render aid to our country, which can only evoke a feeling of gratitude in the hearts of the peoples of the Soviet Union, are fully comprehensible and symptomatic.

Comrades, our forces are numberless. The overweening enemy will soon learn this to his cost. Side by side with the Red Army many thousands of workers, collective farmers and intellectuals are rising to fight the enemy aggressor. The masses of our people will rise up in their millions. The working people of Moscow and Leningrad have already begun to form huge People’s Guards in support of the Red Army. Such People’s Guards must be raised in every city which is in danger of enemy invasion; all the working people must be roused to defend with their lives their freedom, their honour and their country in this patriotic war against German fascism.

In order to ensure the rapid mobilization of all the forces of the peoples of the U.S.S.R. and to repulse the enemy who has treacherously attacked our country, a State Committee of Defence has been formed and the entire state authority has now been vested in it. The State Committee of Defence has entered on the performance of its functions and calls upon all our people to rally around the Party of Lenin and Stalin and around the Soviet Government, so as to render self sacrificing support to the Red Army and Red Navy, to exterminate the enemy and secure victory.

All our forces for the support of our heroic Red Army and our glorious Red Navy!

All the forces of the people for the destruction of the enemy!

Forward to victory!



5th of July 1941.

—it is emphasised in the German newspaper commentary that the German forces in Russia, just like elsewhere, are supplied from home and are not dependent on what they might eventually find along the way – neither with regard to foodstuffs, nor gasoline and the like.(1)

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1) In the picture we see green hands with a swastika grabbing the supplies. “Eggs” is written on the box. In the text below the picture it says: “- and then everything else.”

The illustration is a typically Danish understated humour. A satirical commentary on the Germans’ masked robbery of Danish agricultural goods and other products that took place throughout the occupation.
These Danish food supplies were of great importance to the German war effort and under the occupation the German share of exports of Danish agricultural goods increased from approx. 25% to 80%.
The mechanism for this masked looting of the country’s resources was that the Danmarks Nationalbank gave the Germans carte blanche access to the state’s finances through various accounts – in public called “The Clearing Account” – from which the Germans then paid for goods from farmers, food producers, wholesalers etc.
The Danish state financed all the German expenses related to the occupation in this way and all disbursements were made against the guarantee of the Danish state and with Danish funds, causing an increase in the money supply of unusual dimensions.
All German expenses, both administrative, operational and military, were financed, including construction work for the expansion of infrastructure such as airports and roads and, not least, the huge concrete bunker facilities with artillery positions along the west coast of Jutland.

On the financing of the German occupation, the National Bank writes:

Funding of services for the German government during the 1940-45 occupation took place over two accounts. They were included in Danmarks Nationalbank’s balance sheet under the assets “Clearing accounts with foreign countries” and “miscellaneous debtors”. The first account appeared at the capitulation of approx. 2.9 billion DKK. The majority of Denmark’s other services for German expenses, on the other hand, were paid over the so-called “occupation account”, i.e. The National Bank’s account of the “Hauptverwaltung der Reichkreditkassen, Berlin” (Head Office of the Reich Credit Bank).
The occupation account showed even stronger growth than the clearing account. Danmarks Nationalbank’s receivables on this account were approx. 5 billion DKK. The total German debt to the National Bank after the liberation, in accordance with the state guarantee, was transferred to the state regulatory account in the amount of 7.611 billion DKK.

Source: Danmarks Nationalbank

Converted to today’s rate based on the development of the Consumer Price Index, this amount today corresponds to approx. 200 billion DKK.



2nd of July 1941.

In Moscow in 12 days

A glance at the map shows that the German forces, which are now said to be positioned at the autostrada leading to Smolensk and Moscow, have in 6 days advanced over 300 kilometres, which means that they – if they continue to advance at the same speed – will in 12 days stand in front of the gates of Moscow.

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3rd of July 1941.

–––the battle on the Central Front has brought about a decision of world-historical significance.

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3rd of July 1941.

–––the encircled armies are practically annihilated.

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4th of July 1941.

–––the German army report: The Soviet army’s resistance seems broken.

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8th of July 1941.

The advance in Russia compared to France.

–––The peak of the German advance to the east has now reached the so-called Stalin Line on the whole width of the front. Hereby a new phase of combat operations eastwards begins that, as it can be foreseen, will come to intense battles for this system of fortifications. With the conquest of these positions, the German troops will have gained free path to the vast expanses of inner Russia. Before approaching the Stalin Line, the German troops have had to cover a distance of 400-450 km. from the border, fighting and marching. This has been achieved in a period of 14 days. How short a time period this is becomes clear, when one recalls, that the German Units in the west needed 21 days to reach Abbeville from the border of Luxembourg, whereby they had only to cover about 350 km.

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14th of July 1941.

The German army report on the decisive breakthrough.

The German air force has destroyed any possibility of Russian counter-attack.

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14th of July 1941.

Attack on Moscow.

One gets an impression of the expectations in the German military circles, when one hears, that the breach of the Stalin Line is compared to the breach of the Weygand Line. This breach took place, they say, on the 7th of June, and Paris was reached on the 14th of July. The Stalin Line was breached on the 12th of July, when will Moscow fall?

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8.



14th of July 1941.

Berlin is now expecting a quick victory over Soviet Russia

–––after the breach of the Stalin Line, which was announced in a special message from the German High Command at midnight yesterday, military circles in Berlin apparently count on a quick victory over Soviet Russia.

An official comment to the special message of the High Command even outright proclaims: “The final results reached”.

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14th of July 1941.

Signs of disintegration in the Soviet Union.

–––The Wehrmacht report further contains a momentous reference to the degeneration and phenomena of disintegration observed in numerous Soviet-Russian troop units, which can be taken as a sure sign that the mighty main force of the Soviet army is now broken, moreover, the different Soviet-Russian forces have become strongly mixed up and the leadership is no longer capable of keeping them in order.

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16h of July 1941.

More signs of moral collapse in the Soviet army.

19th of July 1944.

The Red Army inferior to the Tsarist

–––since the hostile propaganda in this war time after time tries to instil courage in the population by making comparisons with the World War, it must be clearly stated, that in the 4 years the World War lasted, certainly the Tsarist army in several cases indeed gained ground to the west, but never achieved any decisive result. On the other hand the Central Powers certainly succeeded in halting the repeated advances of the Tsarist army, weakening it to a great extent and throwing it far back, but they never had at their disposal sufficient forces to achieve an annihilating victory which could decide the war. Moreover, the command of the Tsarist army always knew how to conduct masterful retreats as to evade such an outcome. It must be assumed – and the report of the German Wehrmacht has already yesterday emphasised this – that shortly, east of the Stalin Line, further decisive results will be enforced.

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9.



22nd of July 1941.

Main results.

–––the Soviet army’s land and air forces have suffered enormous and completely irreplaceable losses and are already now forced to deploy the last reserves.

Severe crisis has broken out within the leadership, as well as regarding the attitude within the Soviet-Russian army units.

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23rd of July 1941.

–––Berliner Börsen-Zeitung accentuates the huge losses suffered by the Soviet troops in all areas and further reports that no unit command any longer exists in the Soviet-Russian army.

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25th of July 1941.

Timoshenko liquidated.

According to what is announced, Marshal Timoshenko has been liquidated.(1)

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29th of July 1941.

Culmination point reached on the Eastern Front

Local Russian resistance expected to soon be overcome as the front is already broken up.

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–––the opinion in military circles today is that in the east the German armed forces have passed the culmination point of the ongoing great, and, as they call it, decisive struggle.

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3rd of August 1941.

— Völkischer Beobachter(2) brings on the cover of its Sunday issue an article on Russia’s military force, which under the heading “The Most Dangerous Enemy” accentuates that Russia has immense resources of arms, manpower and natural resources in general.

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10.


1) Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (18th of February [old style: 6th of February] 1895 – 31st of March 1970) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union. Commander of the Central Front during the first year of the Great Patriotic War.

2) Völkischer Beobachter (“People’s Observer”) – the official newspaper of the Nazis, published by the Eher Verlag, owned by the Nazi Party NSDAP (Nationalsocialistische Deutche Arbeiterpartei), appeared as a weekly from late 1920 to 1923. From 8. February 1923 to the end of april 1945 the newspaper was published as a daily with Alfred Rosenberg as editor. Was, however, banned for a short period after the Nazis’ so-called “Beer Hall Putsch” on the 9th of November 1923 until the 26th of February 1925.



7th of August 1941.

Lack of ammunition among the Russians

–––as a result of the effective bombing raids by the German Air Force on ammunition depots and columns of Reserves, several Soviet-Russian divisions experience shortage of ammunition, which is confirmed by the decreasing enemy artillery-fire at several sections of the Eastern Front. The Bolsheviks’ attempts to secure the supply of the troops with ammunitions, provisions and fuel using aircraft have, generally, failed.

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12th of August 1941.

Fanaticism and lack of honesty in Russian struggle.

German military evaluation of the combat methods of the Russian Air Force.

From the military side within the Air Force in Berlin, it is pointed out that on the Eastern Front one fights against an enemy who, in his way of fighting, shows a strange mixture of fanaticism, lack of knowledge, and total absence of the attitude of honesty towards the opponent. On other air battle fronts, it is further stated, the spirit of honest single combat between the aviators is generally retained, but in this regard, the Russian pilots resemble the infantrymen.
The downed Russian aviators hang in the parachutes and with automatic pistols they shoot at the German fighter-planes that circle around them to determine where they land. German aviators, on the other hand, do not respond to fire in such cases, since an enemy descending by parachute is considered a defeated enemy by the German Air Force.
Therefore, they are spared. This is, as stated here, completely alien to the Russian aviators.
Remarkable is also, that the Russian aviators in burning machines do not dare to jump out when over the German positions until the flames completely engulf the cabin and they have to give up returning to their own lines. This is on the German side attributed to the fact, that the Russian aviators believe the commissars when they assure that every Russian soldier who falls into the hands of the Germans will be tortured to death. Additionally it is emphasised that courage is not great. Numerically superior Russian air formations seek to evade any battle with the Germans by fleeing, or they defend themselves tactically and technically so badly that simultaneous shooting down of whole rows of Russian machines is possible.

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11.



18th of August 1941.

Under the pressure of incessant pursuit east of Bug(1), the defeated enemy is increasingly facing disintegration. The military spoils of war and the number of prisoners are unceasingly on the rise.

–––––

19th of August 1941

–––it is also said, that it will not be long before the Russians are cut off from the possibility of using the Black Sea as a seafaring route. Freedom of movement may therefore soon be severely restricted.

–––––

22nd of August 1941

 

Rumours about Voroshilov(2).

According to rumours in Berlin today, it is claimed, that Marshal Voroshilov is said to have been liquidated, that is to say, shot–––––

–––––

2nd of September 1941.

–––work is now being done to save the harvest on the conquered territory. A German army commander has issued a proclamation to the rural population, in which they are held responsible for ensuring that the crops are not destroyed.
Higher prices are promised, than those currently in force. Due to the absence of machinery, the rural population is encouraged to do as much as possible by hand. Not having had the necessary time to reorganise the conditions, the Sovkhozs, that is, the Great State Farms and the Kolkhozes that is, the Urban Communities, still exist. German agricultural specialists have been deployed as supervising managers, and everything is done in cooperation with the German Armed Forces.

–––––

12.


1) Bug is a river in Poland, marking the border between the German-controlled and the Soviet-controlled territories on the 22nd of June 1941. It presently demarcates the border between Belorussia and Poland.

2) Voroshilov had not been shot! On the contrary, throughout the Great Patriotic War, he held important posts and made his contribution to the victory. Upon his death in 1969, Vorishilov was honoured for his efforts to the Soviet Union and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis on Red Square in Moscow.

Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov was born in 1881 in the Ekaterinoslav County of the Russian Empire (now Lugansk People’s Republic of the Russian Federation) into a family of a railway worker.

Being a communist, he participated in the 1917 revolution and was later appointed State Commissioner for Defence. He was the first to bear the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union. In the position of State commissar, his logistical talent came to full expression and he distinguished himself during the war as a highly skilled leader and organizer of the Red Army. From 1942 he also coordinated the partisan movement.

In 1943, Voroshilov participated in the Tehran Conference, and in the same year coordinated operation “Spark” (Iskra), which broke the blockade of Leningrad. In 1944, he coordinated the Primor army during the Crimean offensive that liberated the Crimean Peninsula.

In 1943, his leadership skills and pronounced logistical talent were also manifested in the operation of the highly effective State Trophy Committee over captured enemy military equipment and objects of use, which, as the war progressed and especially after the victory at Stalingrad, grew enormously in scale.



6th of September 1941.

–––in the usually well-informed German circles, it is stated that extensive preparations have already been made in anticipation of a possible winter war. Large stocks of all sorts of material, including barracks and such are kept ready in Germany.

–––––

2nd of October 1941.

 

Murmansk Railway and Stalin Canal cut off

–––strategically, this conquest has resulted in both the Murmansk railway and the Stalin Canal having been cut off and the most important of the Svir electrical power plants supplying power to Leningrad having been taken away from the Russians.

–––––

3rd of October 1941.

The winter.

–––to talk about the forms, that the winter war will take on, is still too early, the German colonel continues, but one thing must adamantly be stressed: the German military will be better able to endure the Russian winter on enemy territory than the Russians themselves.

–––––

4th of October 1941.

–––during the four winters of the World War, the Germans were also able to wage winter war and in its end phase make great marches towards lake Peipus. At the moment, on the front, as a result of rains, rather unfavourable weather conditions prevail, but “General Winter”, it is declared, is nothing to be afraid of.

–––––

13.



5th of October 1941.

Gigantic German forces rally against Moscow

Decisive battle before the winter both for the Capital and the Caucasus oil.

–––it is even presumed, that the Germans do not consider it impossible that before the winter, or at least at the beginning of the winter, they will have penetrated to the Caucasus and completely or partially conquered the mountainous regions with the oil wells in the Baku district.

–––––

11th of October 1941.

–––it is reported about the supposed plans of the Soviet Union, according to which the government were to be divided into 3 parts, one of which was to remain in Moscow and lead the defence, the second, under the leadership of Stalin himself(1), was to relocate to the Urals, while a third part in Tiflis(2) was to establish a connection with the English forces in Iran.

–––––

11th of October 1941.

–––According to front reports, the Russian air force has not been able to offer any resistance in the central sectors for the simple reason that it no longer exists. –

–––––

15th of October 1941.

–––north of Moscow, it is experienced in Berlin, the German troops are approaching the Leningrad-Moscow railway line, which, admittedly, has already been previously reported interrupted by the encirclement of Leningrad.

–––––

19th of October 1941.

The Germans are said to have yesterday broken through Moscow’s outer defensive lines.

–––––

23rd of October 1941.

–––today it is again emphasised in the well-informed German circles, that the German military operations against Moscow do not imply that the city will immediately fall, while, at the same time it is emphasised that a rapid conquest of the city is not necessary.

–––––

14.


1) Stalin never left Moscow:

The question of the evacuation of the Head of State hung in the air. There were at least a dozen options for the evacuation of Joseph Stalin, involving the use of a car, train or plane. According to one version, the Soviet leader even came to the train station, where a train was waiting for him, but after wandering around the platform for a while, Stalin decided not to leave Moscow.
However, there were attempts to evacuate the Supreme Commander to Kuibyshev, but no one dared to talk to him about it. Then they tried to find out indirectly:

— Comrade Stalin, when shall we send the guards regiment from Moscow?
— If necessary, I will lead this regiment into the attack myself, Stalin replied.

(V. Molotov. Quoted by: Chuev F.)

Felix Chuev wrote a verse on this topic: “I will lead this regiment into the charge“.

2) Another name of Tbilisi, the Capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.



25th of October 1941.

The weather hampers the operations.

Berlin claims that General Winter has entered German War service.

–––––

26th of October 1941.

–––from the Moscow Front there are reports of continued fighting on the outer defences, according to yet unconfirmed reports, the Germans are said to have managed to advance the tip of their front positions by another 20 kilometres, so that the German troops at a few locations are now standing approximately 30 to 40 km. from the city itself.

–––––

27th of October 1941.

–––moreover it is expected that the Germans will muster all their strength to conquer Moscow, as the city would be of great importance as winter quarters and as starting point for new operations.

–––––

28th of October 1941.

The Germans still face resistance, but it is maintained, that the campaign is decided.

A temporary pause.

–––The campaign to the east is already decided. A military spokesman today referred to the fact, that the war of 1870-71 was actually decided in The Battle of Sedan, though it had not yet ended. The same was the case regarding the campaign against the Soviet Union.

–––––

31st of October 1941.

The Soviet troops are hardly any longer able to provide long-term resistance, which is evidenced by the pursuit of them in the Donets Basin(1).

–––––

15.


1) Donets Basin is the Donbass.



1st of November 1941.

2000 tanks deployed in blizzard towards Moscow

3rd of November 1941.

–––it is declared tonight from the official German side that the German High Command has of course made all conceivable preparations for a winter campaign in the Soviet Union, and it is stated that not even a Russian winter will succeed in bringing the German advance to an end.

–––––

29th of November 1941.

–––this evening it is strongly emphasised from the military side that the conquest of Moscow not only has the greatest political, but also a very significant military and strategic significance. This, in connection with messages of advance in the German army report, means that in the military circles in Berlin one is inclined to expect a storm on the Russian capital, whose location, as the centre of the entire Soviet-Russian traffic system, both in terms of canal systems, road networks and railway lines, makes it a significant military factor.

–––––

30th of November 1941.

From the German side, as is also evident from the wording of the army report, they make no secret of the fact that the war of extermination, which they now intend to unleash against Rostov, is directly aimed at the city’s civilian population.

–––––

30th of November 1941.

–––on certain sections one experiences a German massive effort, the likes of which has not until now been seen during the Battle of Moscow. Apparently the Germans are determined to do everything to provide winter quarters in Moscow for their million-strong army as soon as possible.

–––––

16.



3rd of December 1941.

–––Both from the official side, in military circles, and in the press, however, it is being declared again and again these days that the Russian losses are immeasurable, and that the Russian pressure must soon diminish because of these losses. It is impossible to continue the attacks for a long time with such high losses, they declare, even if orders have been given for mass attacks regardless of the losses. “Lokalanzeiger”(1) writes in connection with the Russian counterattack: “One must assume that the Bolsheviks still have reserves – yes, indeed! The army of the communist world revolution is strong enough to conquer all of Europe to its farthest corner”. The newspaper further explains why Rostov has been abandoned, referring to the fact that the German high command had “rejected prestige victories” right from the start of the war. In Rostov, the Bolshevik partisan forces were numerically strong, the paper writes, “and our troops suffered unnecessary losses”, which is why the high command “simply withdrew the troops and ordered that heavy weapons should take care of them”.

–––––

9th of December 1941.

Germany puts the fighting on the Eastern Front on hold.

–––––––––––––

As long as the Russian winter lasts, no major military operations will take place on the German side.

––––––––––––

–––On Sunday afternoon – at the same time as the announcements of the first fateful fighting in the Far East spread throughout the world – the German army high command made the decision which is reflected in the first lines of the German army report today, and which, according to what Your correspondent tonight learns, in military circles in Berlin, that it must literally be read as such that the hostilities on the Eastern Front from the German side since yesterday have been suspended. –

–––––––

–––No major military operations will be carried out on the German side as long as the Russian winter lasts. The German troops will occupy the most advantageous positions in the various front sections and go into winter quarters. The frost, which helped the German storm troops in last week’s advance on Moscow and brought them all the way to a distance of 40-50 kilometres from the capital, has now also saved Moscow for the time being. The storm against Moscow will not be continued, just as the fighting against Leningrad, which has been besieged for 3 months, will be limited for the time being to the repulse of possible breakout attempts.

–––––

17.


1) “Lokalanzeiger” is the “Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger”, a daily newspaper published in Berlin between 1883 and 1945.



14th of December 1941.

The German winter retreat continues – proceeds as scheduled

In strict accordance with the plan conceived in advance.

–––––

22nd of December 1941.

Positional front in the east.

–––The armies in the east, after their imperishable and unique in the world history victories against the most dangerous enemy of all time, under the influence of the sudden onset of winter, from the campaign of movement, must be brought into a positional front.

–––––

27th of December 1941.

The Russian question will be decided by the German armed forces in the coming year–––––

–––––

31st of December 1941.

–––The newspaper notes that the Russian soldiers have significant quantities of material at their disposal, so that the German troops are put to the most severe tests.

–––––

18.



4th of October 1941.

–––48 hours ago, an operation of gigantic dimensions has once again been initiated, and will be continued until the complete destruction of the enemy to the east.(1)

–––since then everything has gone according to plan. Not for a second during this time has the law of action and hand been taken away from the leadership. On the contrary, until today every action has gone as planned as in its time against Poland. I’m only really speaking out today because today I dare say that this opponent is already broken and will never rise again.(2)

–––

10th of October 1941.

The beginning of the last big decisive battle of this year

–––in these 31/2 months, my soldiers, the conditions have now finally been created for the last huge blow that will crush this opponent even before the onset of winter. All preparations – as far as humans can make them – are now complete. In terms of plan, this time, step by step, preparations have been made to bring the opponent into the situation in which we can now inflict upon him the deadliest blow.

(Hitler)(3)

–––––

19.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech at the Sportpalast on the opening of the Kriegswinterhilfswerk (Winter Help for War). Berlin, 3rd of October 1941. – This time, coming here was very difficult for me because, at this hour, a newly-begun operation on our Eastern Front is resulting in a gigantic success. In the last forty-eight hours, it has been underway on a gigantic scope. It will help crush our opponent in the east.

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech at the Sportpalast on the opening of the Kriegswinterhilfswerk (Winter Help for War). Berlin, 3rd of October 1941. The Danish newspaper made some adjustments to the formulation. – Today, I can state: everything since has gone according to plan. Whatever surprises the individual soldier or troop may have had, the leadership never for a second allowed the initiative to be taken from it during this time. On the contrary, to this day, every action has gone as much according to plan as it did in the east against Poland, then against Norway, and finally against the west, and in the Balkans. And I have to state something else here: neither did the correctness of our planning deceive us, nor did the competence, the unique historic bravery of the German soldier. Finally, the quality of our weapons did not deceive us. Neither the smooth functioning of all our operations at the front, the domination of the gigantic rear areas, nor the German homeland deceived us. However, something did deceive us: we had no idea how gigantic the preparations of this opponent against Germany and Europe had been, and how immensely great the danger had been, how this time we escaped by a hair’s breadth the destruction not only of Germany, but also of all Europe. I can say this here today. I say this here today because I may say today that this opponent has already broken down and will never rise again!

3) Adolf Hitler – proclamation to the soldiers of the Eastern Front. Fuhrer Headquarters, 2nd of October 1941. – But in these three-and-a-half months, my soldiers, the preconditions were finally created for that last gigantic blow, which shall crush this enemy before the onset of winter! As far as is humanly possible, all preparations have been completed. This time, everything was prepared step by step and according to plan in order to bring the opponent into such a situation that we can deal him the deadly blow now.



10th of November 1941.

Hitler on Leningrad.

––––

–––in the passage in Hitler’s speech in which he declares that Germany itself determines the pace of the advance, he also referred to the situation at Leningrad, declaring:

  1. we are on the defensive at Leningrad, and the opponent must try to break out, but he will starve to death in Leningrad. I will certainly not sacrifice one more man than is absolutely necessary.
  2. The city is surrounded, no one will be able to liberate it any more, and it will fall into our hands. And when you say “only as a heap of ruins”, I answer: I am not interested in any city of Leningrad, but only in the destruction of the industrial centre of Leningrad. When the Russians take pleasure in blowing up their cities, they might save us a lot of work.

As far as the moment of prestige is concerned, Hitler stated, I must state that it plays no role at all with us. For example, when you say: why don’t we march now, it could be because it is raining or snowing, or because the railway tracks are not yet fully finished.(1)

10th of November 1941.

–––The number of prisoners is about 3.6 million. When some lone blockhead(2) says that this has not been confirmed, it must be stated: When a German military agency has made a count, it is correct.

3.6 million prisoners corresponds to at least the same number of fallen.

When I assume that in Russia, as here, there are 3 to 4 wounded for every fallen, this gives a loss of at least 8 – 10 million, apart from the slightly wounded, who may one day be cured.

No army in the world can recover from such a thing, not even the Russian one.

When Stalin says that we have lost 4.5 million man(3), and Russia only 350.000 missing, 350.000 dead and 1 million wounded, one can only ask: Why have the Russians run back one and a half thousand kilometres if they have not lost any forces? It is really strongly Jewish what these, the mighty of the Kremlin, are coming up with.

The material we have captured during this time is immeasurable, currently over 15,000 airplanes and over 20.000 armoured vehicles, over 27.000 canons.

The entire world industry, including even the German one, could only slowly replace this material. The Democracies’ industry will not replace it in the next few years, in any case.

I have never yet used the term Blitzkrieg(4) because it is quite silly, but if you can use it at all in a campaign, it is in this campaign, where an enemy possessing a huge empire has been struck down and crushed in the course of extremely short time.(5)

20.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller. Munich, 8th of November 1941. – If somebody says today: “You are on the defensive at Leningrad,” then I come and say: we were on the offensive in front of Leningrad just as long as this was necessary in order to encircle Leningrad. Now, we are on the defensive, and the other side has to try to break out. But he will starve in Leningrad! I will surely not sacrifice one more man than is absolutely necessary. … The city is encircled. Nobody will enter it any more. It will fall into our hands. And when they say, “only as a heap of ruins”-I am not interested in any city Leningrad, instead only in the destruction of the industrial centre Leningrad. If it pleases the Russians to blow up their cities, then perhaps they are saving us a bit of work. Questions of prestige-let me repeat this-do not play a role with us. If, for example, someone asks: “Why aren’t we marching now?”-Because, at the moment, it is raining or snowing, or perhaps we are not totally finished with the railroads!

2) Here the Danish newspaper editors avoided a direct reference to Churchill that Hitler made. See note 5.

3) Here Hitler refers to Stalin’s speech at the Red Square parade on the 7th of November 1941: The enemy is not as strong as some frightened intellectuals portray it. The devil is not so terrible as they paint him. Who can deny that our Red Army has more than once forced the vaunted German troops on the run? If we judge not by the boastful statements of the German propagandists, but by the actual situation of Germany, it will not be difficult to understand that the German-fascist invaders are facing a catastrophe. In Germany now there is hunger and poverty, after 4 months of war Germany lost 4 and a half million soldiers, Germany is bleeding, its manpower depleted, the spirit of outrage has gripped not only the peoples of Europe fallen under the yoke of the German invaders, but also the German people themselves, who can not see the end to the war. The German invaders are straining their last strength. There is no doubt that Germany cannot stand such a strain for long. A few more months, another six months, perhaps a year – and Hitlerite Germany must burst under the weight of its crimes.

4) Hitler must have suffered a memory shift regarding his use of the “foolish” concept of lightning war (Blitzkrieg):
Adolf Hitler – Speech in Danzig, 19th of September 1939“Here, too, I may lose my patience. In spite of this perfidious method of warfare which has not been paralleled throughout the past decades, our armies have dealt with the enemy at lightning speed (in Blitzesschnelle). A few days ago, an English paper wrote I had relieved a colonel general of his duties because I had counted on a Blitzkrieg for this operation and had been deeply disappointed by the slow pace of the mission.”
Adolf Hitler – Speech at the Sportpalast on the Opening of the Kriegswinterhilfswerk, Berlin, October 3, 1941“I can only say: if you speak of a Blitzkrieg here, then these soldiers deserve that their feats be described as lightning, because on the march they have never been outdone in history.”

5) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller. Munich, 8th of November 1941. – If I wanted to sum up the success of this campaign until now, then the number of prisoners now stands at approximately three point six million, that is, three million six hundred thousand prisoners. And please don’t tell me an English blockhead says that this has not been confirmed. If a German military office counts something, then it is correct! There is an essential difference between a German officer and a British stockbroker! It is totally correct, just as our numbers for French and English prisoners were correct! The English know this quite well themselves because they always want to take care of their prisoners. Now, if I look at three point six million prisoners on the one side and I go by World War standards, then this means a corresponding number of casualties. It would be a bad testimonial for Mr. Stalin if his people were fighting less bravely now than they did in the World War. On the contrary, they fight in part out of fear and in part with bestial, fanatical madness. And, if I now assume that in Russia, as here with us, there are three to four wounded for every fatal casualty, then the result is an absolute loss of at least eight to ten million, without considering those only slightly wounded, who might be cured and put back into action. My party comrades, no army in the world can recover from this, not even the Russian. Now that Stalin is suddenly saying that we lost four-and-a-half million men, while Russia was missing only three hundred seventy-eight thousand men in action-this would have to be the prisoners-three hundred fifty thousand dead and one million wounded, then I can only ask: Why did the Russians retreat one-and-a-half thousand kilometres if they only had half the losses we had, especially considering the gigantic masses of their troops? What this mighty man in the Kremlin says seems to me strikingly Jewish. … The materiel booty we took in this period is immense. Right now, we have over fifteen thousand planes, over twenty-two thousand tanks, over twenty-seven thousand guns. It is truly an enormous amount of materiel. The entire industry of the world, including German industry, could only replace such amounts slowly. In any event, our democrats’ industries will not replace it in the next few years! … I have never used the word Blitzkrieg because it is a really stupid word. If it can be applied to any campaign at all, however, then to this one! Never before has a gigantic empire been shattered and defeated in a shorter time than the Soviet Union has been this time.



The proclamation, emitted by the caricature of Hitler, reads: “General Winter has entered German War service”. The quote appears on page 15 of this book.



10th of November 1941.

–––today you no longer meet a bourgeois Germany with velvet gloves, but a National Socialist Germany with hard fists.

Then there are still people who harbour the most stupid hopes, namely that a revolution will break out in Germany.

Everything is conceivable, except one thing, namely that Germany ever capitulates. When our opponents say that the fight will last until 1942, we say: It can last as long as it wants, the last battalion on this field will be the German one.(1)

10th of November 1941.

–––now another whole series of European states have joined us. We can say that Europe is on our front, if not state-wise, then at least in terms of attitude. We can probably say at the end of this year that on this European front the greatest danger has already been averted.

We must have no doubt that the Fate of Europe for the next 1000 years will be decided.(2)

22nd of December 1941.

–––and the preparations for the immediate resumption of the offensive struggle in the spring until the definitive destruction of the adversary in the east must be made without delay. The initiation of other determinative war measures is imminent.(3)

1st of January 1942.

The year must – we all pray to our Lord – bring the decision to the salvation of our people(4)

 

23.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller. Munich, 8th of November 1941.Today, you are not confronting a bourgeois Germany with kid gloves, but a National Socialist one, and it has strong fists! … And then comes the most stupid hope: namely, that an uprising, a revolution, will break out in Germany. … I have been a prophet so often in my life, and they always laughed at me, but I was always right in the end. I want to be one again: Never will November 1918 be repeated in Germany! It cannot repeat itself! Everything is conceivable but only one thing is not: that Germany will ever capitulate! If our enemies say, “Well, then the war will last until the year 1942!” – The war can last as long as it wants – but the last battalion on the field will be a German one! It is useless to try to intimidate me!

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller. Munich, 8th of November 1941.A number of other European states have joined us. We can say that almost all of South-Eastern Europe is in our camp today. And the greater part of the remainder of Europe also stands at our front in sentiment, even if not in public. So, today, we do not fight alone as National Socialists, but together with a gigantic European front. And at the end of this year, we can say that the gravest danger has already been parried by this European front.

3) Source unknown.

4) Adolf Hitler – New Year’s Proclamation to the National Socialists and Party Comrades. 1st of January 1942. – At the turn of the year, we can only ask the Almighty to give the German Volk and its soldiers the strength to hold their ground, through hard work and with a brave heart, all that is needed to preserve our freedom and our future.



21st of January 1942.

–––about the war itself will I only speak a little. History is already speaking here. In 1939 we did away with Poland, in 1940 with Norway, France, Holland and Belgium, in 1941 first with the Balkans and then finally with the state about which Mr. Cripps said a few days ago that it had already been preparing for a showdown with Germany for years.(1)

31st of January 1942.

–––if the Russians capture a town here and there, one can be sure that it is only a heap of ruins that falls into their hands, and what does that mean in comparison with what we will accomplish when the weather conditions permits us to resume summer’s victory march? In a few weeks we believe that winter will begin to recede in the southern section of the front, and then spring will quickly come to the other parts of the front as well, and with that the German musketry will set itself in motion again.

(Hitler)(2)

31st of January 1942.

–––how this year will end, says Chancellor Hitler at the end of a speech that evidently made a strong impression on the audience, “I do not know; whether the war will be finished with this year, I do not know, but I know that wherever the enemy appears, also this year, we will beat him. Тhe year will again be marked by great victories.

(Hitler)(3)

24.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast. Berlin, 30th of January 1942. – I will say very little on the war itself. History says it plain enough: in 1939, the elimination of Poland, in 1940, Norway, France, and England, the Netherlands, and Belgium, and, in 1941, first the Balkans and, finally, the state which a chatty Mr. Cripps told us a few days ago had been preparing for the confrontation with Germany for years.

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast. Berlin, 30th of January 1942. – However, in a few weeks, winter will be over in the south, and spring will slowly move northward. The ice will melt, and the hour will come when the ground will be hard and firm again. Then the German front-line soldier will again be able to operate his equipment on this ground. … And in those instances where Russians did break through and thought that they would be able to occupy small towns, there are no more small towns. There is only a heap of ruins. What does this matter compared with what we do occupy, what we put in good order, and what we will put in order, either in the spring or afterwards?

3) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast. Berlin, 30th of January 1942. – I do not know how this year will end. Nobody can say whether the war will end in its course. But I do know one thing: wherever the enemy makes an appearance, we will beat him, just as we have up to now! It will again be a year of great victories.



25th of February 1942.

Statement by Hitler on the party’s 22nd anniversary

–––––

Preparations for the spring offensive prevented him from attending the commemoration in the Bürgerbräukeller.

–––––

The Führer’s oldest fellow fighters celebrated today in the Hofbräuhaus the 22nd anniversary of the founding of the National Socialist Party. The Führer, who this year was prevented from participating in the party due to the reckoning with the Bolshevism, had sent a greeting, which was read out by District Leader Adolf Wagner. In this greeting, according to D.N.B.(1), the Führer stated this, among other things.

For the first time in many years, it is not possible for me to participate in the commemoration of my oldest comrades. I cannot, however, leave Headquarters at a time when the winter is drawing to a close, the winter from which our adversary had expected everything. Our adversary hoped to be able to give the German army the same fate as Napoleon’s, but this attempt has miserably run aground above all on the bravery and sacrifice of our people.

Now, when the severest cold has broken, and the snows have already begun to melt in the Crimea and in the south of Russia, it is not possible for me to leave my place, in which preparations are being made for the final showdown and reckoning with the conspiracy which the plutocratic world banking houses and the Kremlin have entered into to the extermination of the Aryan nation and people.

For us, National Socialists, this community of Jewish capital and Communism is not foreign. Just as in our country before, during, and after the First World War, so too today it is only Jews, and again Jews, who must be held responsible for the rift between the peoples. There is one difference, however, when we compare the current world struggle with the end of the 1914-18 war. In 1919 we, National Socialists, were a small crowd of confessors who not only saw, but also fought the international enemy of humanity. Today, the thoughts of our National Socialist Revolution and the Fascist Revolution have conquered great and powerful states, and my prophecy will come true: That not the Aryan humanity, but the Jew will be exterminated by this war. Whatever the struggle brings, or however long it will last, this will be the final result. And only when these parasites are removed, will a public understanding and thus lasting peace come to the suffering world.

I am therefore today more than ever with You in spirit, my old National Socialists. But on this day I am also personally even more imbued with the unshakable confidence and holy faith that the great struggle in which we stand and which began in this hall 22 years ago cannot end differently and will not end differently, than our own wonderful struggle for power in our German Reich. Just as Providence in the long struggle then blessed our strife, so will it also let us win it now. What was then a party program is already now theses for a new and better world.(2)

25.


1) D.N.B. “Deutsches Nachrichtenbüro GmbH” (The German Information Agency). The 3rd Reich’s official press office from 1933-1945.

2) Adolf Hitler – Proclamation for the 22-th Anniversary of the N.S.D.A.P. (read by Gauleiter Adolf Wagner). Fuhrer Headquarters, 24th of February 1942. – For the first time in many years, I am unable to participate in the day of commemoration with my oldest comrades in arms. I cannot well leave headquarters at a time when the winter is ending, a winter on which our enemies have placed all their hopes.

Our enemies hoped that the German armies would then suffer the same fate as the Napoleonic retreat. This attempt pitifully failed. Above all, it failed because of the bravery and the willingness of our unique men to sacrifice, who side by side with our allies held out during the icy storms of December, January, and February as staunchly as they had before fought for their unfading victories in the heat of June, July, August, and September.
Now that the worst cold is over, now that the snow is beginning to thaw in the Crimea and in southern Russia, I am unable to leave my post, as preparations for the final confrontation are being made, to settle accounts with this conspiracy in which the banking houses in the plutocratic world and the vaults of the Kremlin pursue the same goal: the extermination of the Aryan people and races.
This community of Jewish capitalism and Communism is nothing new to us old National Socialists, especially to you, my oldest comrades in arms. As before, during, and after the First World War in our country, so today the Jews and again only the Jews have to be held responsible for tearing apart the nations.
There is a difference, however, if we compare the present world struggle with the end of the war from 1914–1918. In 1919, we National Socialists were a small group of believers who not only recognised the international enemy of mankind but also fought him. Today, the ideas of our National Socialist and Fascist revolution have conquered great and mighty states. My prophecy will be fulfilled that this war will not destroy the Aryan, but, instead, it will exterminate the Jew. Whatever the struggle may bring, however long it may last, this will be its final result. And only then, after the elimination of these parasites, a long era of international understanding, and therefore of true peace, will come over the suffering world.
Today more than ever, I am with you in spirit, my old National Socialists, since you were already my followers when, as [is still true] today, being a National Socialist only meant making sacrifices.
On this day, I am personally all the more inspired with the imperturbable confidence and the sacred faith that this mighty fight, in which we are engaged today and for which, back then, on February 24, 1920, we set out from this same hall in which you are now assembled, cannot and will not end differently from our own miraculous struggle for power in the German Reich. Just as Providence has blessed our fight in all those years, it will now let us win it for good! What used to be our party program are now the basis of a new and improving world.



16th of March 1942.

–––only today do we fully understand our enemy’s preparations.(1)

Often enough have the German proven that he does not fear human threats. But this time he was not only exposed to a fight against the enemy’s armed forces and a seemingly nearly inexhaustible stream in numbers of the most primitive peoples, but also a fight with the cruellest harshness of nature, for today it can be announced that behind us lies a winter, the likes of which Central and Eastern Europe has not experienced in 140 years. Truly, our soldiers and those of our allies have been cruelly tested by Fate in the last 4 months and have shown their true inner worth. They have, however, passed this test in such a way that surely no one is justified in doubting that whatever Fate will bring in the future, it will be easier than what lies behind us. (2)

16th of March 1942.

–––Fate will probably already in a few months be able to show whether the deployment of hecatombs of Russian life in this struggle has been a military act of right or wrong.

But one thing we know today: The Bolshevik hordes who failed to overcome the German and allied soldiers will be destroyed by us this coming summer.

The Bolshevik colossus, which we only now know in its cruel dangerousness, must – and this is our irrevocable decision – never again touch the blessed Europe’s pastures, but must find its final borders at a great distance from here.(3)

16th of March 1942.

–––May the Lord therefore give us all strength to do what duty requires of us in the future as well–––(4)

27th of April 1942.

–––we have a huge winter battle behind us. The hour will come when the fronts are loosened, and then History will decide who has won this winter: the attackers who idiotically sacrificed their masses, or the defender who simply held his positions.(5)

27th of April 1942.

The fight to the east will be continued. The Bolshevik colossus will be beaten by us until it is destroyed.(6)

26.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in Berlin for Heroes’ Memorial Day, 15th of March 1942. – And only today we realise the extent of the preparations of our enemies.

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech in Berlin for Heroes’ Memorial Day, 15th of March 1942. – It was a test that the front as well as the homeland, I can say, passed. That the German does not fear the threats of man, his history has proved frequently enough. This time, he was put to the test not only by the force of the enemy’s weapons and virtually infinite blood resources from the most primitive people, but also by the cruel harshness of nature. For today, we can inform you that behind us lies a winter the like of which has not been seen in Central and Eastern Europe in more than a hundred forty years. Truly, our soldiers and those of our allies were cruelly seized up by Providence in the last four months in order to assess their true inner worth. However, they passed the test in a manner such that nobody is justified in doubting that – no matter what the future or Providence will bring us – what lies ahead can only be easier than what lies behind us.

3) Adolf Hitler – Speech in Berlin for Heroes’ Memorial Day, 15th of March 1942. – In a few months, history will be in a position to judge whether it was militarily correct or incorrect to sacrifice hecatombs of Russian lives in this struggle. Today, we already know one thing: the Bolshevik hordes, who were unable to vanquish the Germans and the allied soldiers this winter, will be defeated by us this coming summer and annihilated. The Bolshevik colossus, whose cruel danger we only now realise, may never again touch the sacred fields of Europe – and this is our irrevocable resolve – but instead it should receive its final borders far from them!

4) Adolf Hitler – Speech in Berlin for Heroes’ Memorial Day, 15th of March 1942. – May the Lord grant us all the strength to do whatever duty demands of us now and in the future.

5) Adolf Hitler – Speech to the Reichstag, April 26, 1942. – My Deputies! Men of the Reichstag! We have a mighty winter battle behind us. The hour will come when the front loses its stiffness again. Then history will decide who won this winter: the attacker, who idiotically sacrificed masses of his men, or the defender, who simply held his positions.

6) Adolf Hitler – Speech to the Reichstag, 26th of April 1942. – The war in the east will be continued. The Bolshevik colossus will be beaten by us until it is smashed.



The text above the caricature of Hitler, reads: “There were moments when men and machines were freezing solid”.

The quote appears on page 29 of this book.



27th of April 1942.

–––when I last spoke to You, a winter descended over the region to the east, the likes of which Europe has not experienced in these areas for the last 140 years.

In just a few days the thermometer dropped from 0 degrees and above to minus 47 degrees Celcius and even lower. Four weeks before it was predicted, all operations were thus abruptly ended. The front, which was in the midst of advancing movement, was neither allowed to wave back nor to be held in the positions in which it then found itself. It was therefore taken back to a regular line running from Taganrog to Lake Ladoga.

I can declare today that that operation was infinitely difficult to carry out. There were moments when men and machines threatened to freeze solid. Anyone who knows the vast expanses of Eastern Europe must count on a psychological strain that destroyed the French armies in 1812.

The main burden of the struggle lay with the German army and the allied troops.

As a soldier, I feel myself so greatly responsible for the conduct of this struggle, that I should have considered it intolerable, had I not, in this exceedingly serious hour with my person, placed myself before all that which Providence seems to have in mind for us.

For several months, more and more of the poorly-trained from the interior of Asia or the Caucasus poured towards our lines, which, especially at night, could only be held in the form of support points. When the Russians penetrated or seeped through barely fortified towns, it was at the cost of 100.000 upon 100.000 more lives. The problem that burdened us the most during this time was the supply problem, for neither the German man nor the German armoured fighting vehicle, nor unfortunately the German locomotives, were prepared for the cold-degrees that had attacked us. The existence or non-existence of our armies depended on the maintenance of the Supply Authority.(1)

––––

29.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech to the Reichstag, 26th of April 1942. – My Deputies! Men of the Reichstag! When I spoke to you the last time, a winter had set in in the east, the like of which Europe had not seen for over a hundred forty years even in this area. In a few days, the thermometer dropped from around zero degrees to minus forty-seven degrees and below. Probably nobody can appreciate what that means unless he has experienced it himself. Four weeks earlier than anticipated, all further operations came to a sudden end. The front, which was in the middle of a forward movement, could not be allowed to be swept back, nor could it be left in the positions taken up at that moment. Therefore, a withdrawal to a general line stretching from Taganrog to Lake Ladoga was made. I can say today that, while this process can be easily described here, it was infinitely difficult to carry it out in reality. The lightning impact of such a cold wave, which even in these areas occurs only once every hundred years, paralysed not only the men but also and above all the machinery. There were moments when both threatened to freeze. Looking at the vastness of this east, you also have to consider the psychological strain which destroyed the French army in 1812, and whose memory is still capable of paralysing the vigour of weak natures. The main burden of the battle lay with the army and the allied foreign units. Therefore, I felt it was an obligation of honour for me to tie my name at this moment to the fate of the army.

As a soldier, I felt so very responsible for the conduct of this battle that I would have regarded it as unbearable in this most difficult hour not to confront personally whatever Providence appeared to have in store for us. That we succeeded in completely mastering the threatening catastrophe, I owe primarily and exclusively to the bravery, the loyalty, and the superhuman capacity for suffering of our brave soldiers. They alone have made it possible for me to hold a front against which the enemy began to throw hecatombs of men.

For months on end, ever new, barely trained masses from the expanses of central Asia or the Caucasus assaulted our lines, which, especially at night, could be held only in the form of strong-points. It is impossible to lie in an open field without cover at minus thirty, forty degrees or lower. If, in spite of this, the Russians succeeded in pushing or seeping through these barely fortified positions with ever new waves of attack, then this was possible only by sacrificing hundreds of thousands of men.

But the problem that weighed on us most heavily at this time was the question of supplies. Neither the German men nor the German armour, nor regrettably our German locomotives were prepared for the onslaught of the cold. And, still, the existence or non-existence of our armies depended on the maintenance of our supply lines.



1st of October 1942.

Hitler said in the Sports Palace:

–––For this year we have also arranged a very simple program: at all time to keep what must be kept, that is to say let the other side do the storming, where we ourselves do not intend to advance, hold the position with an iron fist and wait, who gets tired first.(1)

Hitler then stated among other things: with the year 1942 behind us, in my eyes the most fateful trial for the German people, namely the winter of 1941-42.

I dare say that in that winter the German people and especially its armed forces were weighed by Providence. Something worse cannot and will not come again.(2)

We then embarked on our own big offensive. The goal was:(3)

  1. to deprive the opponent of the last large areas of wheat
  2. to deprive him of the last remnant of coal that can be turned into coke.
  3. to advance to the enemy’s oil sources, to gain control of them or at least to block them off.

–––Here we now set as our goal the region that lies between the Don’s Knee and the Volga itself. As an urban target, we chose Stalingrad, not because the city is named after Stalin, but only because it is a strategically important place and because we were clear that, once we put the Dnieper, Don and Volga out of the game as traffic arteries, the same or even worse will happen that would have happened to Germany if we lost the Rhine, Elbe, Oder or Danube rivers. Because on this giant Volga river alone, over the course of 6 months, approx. 30 Million tons of goods are transported. This is as much as is transported on the Rhine during an entire year. The said traffic is now cut off and has already been for some time. Now attention is particularly focused on Stalingrad, which will also be liquidated. Thereby this position of suspension is achieved and reinforced, and they can be convinced that no human being(4)

To be continued

30.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.For this year, we have drawn up a very simple program. First: under all circumstances, to hold what must be held. That means that we will let the others get underway as long as they want to get underway where we do not intend to advance. To hold firm and to wait and see who will be the first to tire.

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.In my eyes, we have already passed the most fateful test for our Volk in the year 1942. It was the winter of 1941–1942. I may say that Providence weighed on the German Volk and especially its Wehrmacht in this winter. Worse cannot and will not come.

3) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.Thereupon, we lined up for our own great offensive. The first goal was to take from the enemy the last great breadbasket; second, to pull out from under him the last bit of coal that can be carbonised; third, to move up to his oil fields, either to take them or at least to shut him out of there; fourth, the attack was to be continued in order to cut off his last great arterial road, the Volga.

4) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.The objective was an area between the bend of the Don and the Volga, and the town of Stalingrad – not because the town bears Stalin’s name, which is unimportant – but exclusively because it is a strategically important area, and we were aware that the elimination of the Dnieper, the Don, and the Volga as traffic routes would be as terrible or worse for the Soviet Union, as it would be for Germany if we lost the Rhine, the Elbe, the Oder, or the Danube. On the mighty Volga stream alone, thirty million tons of goods are transported in six months. That is just as much as in one year on the Rhine. It [the Volga] has now been cut off for some time. Now it is the taking of Stalingrad above all that will be brought to a conclusion – whereby this lock will gain in depth and strength.
And you can rest assured that no human being can remove us from this place!



Continued–

can ever get us away from this place.

As for the further goals, You will understand that I am not talking about them, because they are goals that are being pursued at the moment. But there will (come) the moment when the German nation will have full clarity about these additional goals.

However, I am allowed to tell You that we have naturally set ourselves as an additional task the organisation of the huge area that we now control. It is of the uttermost importance to us to secure this huge area for our warfare.(1)

Now, on the side of our opponents, there are people who say, “why are they suddenly stopping?” Well, because we’re cautious, because somewhere we stop until we’re sure our supplies are in complete order.(2)

The area must, after all, be put to good use. It falls on us to reorganise part of the economy of these areas. What has been achieved here in this respect is simply enormous. And when such a cow-head – well, I can’t say it – as, for example, Duff Cooper or Eden says: “It was a big mistake that the Germans have gone into the Ukraine or the Kuban area”, then he will surely get to see if it was a mistake that we ventured into these areas.(3)

Let our adversaries wage this war as long as they are able. Whatever we can do to beat them will be done. That they ever beat us is impossible and out of the question.(4)

One thing is quite certain: no bourgeois state will survive this war.(5)

––––

31.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.As to our further intentions, you will understand that I will not speak about them, as it is a question of objectives which are being pursued at this time. In my stead, Mr. Churchill speaks about them. But the time will come when the German nation will obtain clarity on these further goals.
I can tell you, however, that the next task that we will set for ourselves will naturally be the organisation of this gigantic area which we are now occupying.
We were not as interested in marching so many thousands of kilometres as we were in placing this gigantic area in the service of feeding our Volk, securing our raw materials, and, in a wider sense, sustaining all of Europe.

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.Now, my party comrades, You will understand one thing: when people on our enemies’ side say, “Why did they stop all of a sudden?” then I can only reply, because we are careful. Because we do not run to Benghazi only to have to run back again, but because we stop somewhere until our supply lines are back in order.

3) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.After all, the area is supposed to be developed, and that is not easy, since it is not a question of simply sowing and harvesting. Rather, it is a question of making use of, that is, transporting these products across vast distances to a railroad, where they can be loaded. Finally, we must restructure part of this economy: thousands of tractors which were either damaged or eliminated must be improved or replaced with other means. I can only tell you: what has been accomplished here is simply incredible! While the front is fighting, a few kilometres behind it the same soldiers work with sickle and scythe, cultivate the fields again, and behind them the operational staffs of our agricultural organisations move up.
And, if some blockhead (Schafskopf) – I simply cannot call them anything else – like Duff Cooper, Eden, or some other fellow says, “Yes, it was a big mistake for the Germans to move into the Ukraine or the Kuban region,” – we will see whether it was a mistake for us to take these breadbaskets! Luckily, we are already able to make accessible to the German Volk the first, modest gains from this action.

4) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.Our enemies can continue this war for as long as they are able to. What we can do to defeat them, we will do! That they will ever defeat us is impossible and out of the question.

5) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Sportpalast, Berlin, 30th of September 1942.For there is one thing which is certain: no bourgeois state will survive this war.



9th of November 1942.

Hitler’s Speech in Munich.

–––The emperor was a man who lacked all strength to resist these enemies. In ME they now have an opponent who does not know the word “capitulate”.(1)

–––When, as expected, we attack not in the centre, but in Stalingrad, it is because I want to reach the Volga in a certain place, a certain city; that it happens to bear Stalin’s name is of no importance to us. Assuredly, 30 million tons of traffic are cut off there, of which almost 9 million tons are oil traffic. There, all the wheat flows together from Ukraine and the vast areas of the Kuban to be transported north. Furthermore, large quantities of manganese ore. There is a huge storage space, and we want it, and practically we already have it, only a few small spaces are being fought over. When we no longer deploy larger forces there, it is because I do not want to create a new Verdun. We are only deploying very small groups of assault troops, time does not matter here, but no ship will come up the Volga, and that is the decisive thing.(2)

–––When one can’t think of anything else, one say: it is a mistake at all that the Germans have gone to Kirkenes or to Narvik, or that they are now going to Stalingrad, it is a strategic capital mistake. Now, let’s wait and see. We notice already now whether it was really such a big mistake that we occupied Ukraine and took the manganese deposits there, that we went to the Kuban area, the world’s largest granary and took the largest oil refineries, which brought us albeit suspended production of 10 million tons and cut off the transport of 7-9 million tons across the Volga.(3)

–––After we have now got over the last winter, which you could not have known at the time, would come to contain such terrible dangers, today I look at the future quite differently, but back then many were burdened from time to time, even those leading and thinking.

–––Someone may make some mistake or omission this year, but for the winter we are prepared, I can say that, even if this winter should be as difficult as the last. That, what hit us last winter will not hit us again. I can only say that the blow that did not knock us down last winter has only made us stronger. It does not matter where ever the front(4)

to be continued

32.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller, Munich, 8th of November 1942.However, there is one difference: the Germany at the time was imperial in theory, while it was completely broken up in practice. The Kaiser at the time was a man who lacked the strength to resist the enemy; in me, they face an opponent who does not even think of the word capitulation! When I was a boy, I already had the habit – perhaps a bad habit at the time, but all in all still perhaps a virtue – of having the final say.

2) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller, Munich, 8th of November 1942.I do not always do things as others would like me to – yes, I try to find out what the others probably think and, then, I do the opposite. As Mr. Stalin expected us to attack in the centre – I did not want to attack in the centre.
Not only because Mr. Stalin perhaps believed this, but also because I did not really care. I wanted to reach the Volga, and reach it at a certain location, in a certain city. By coincidence, the city bore Stalin’s name . But you should not think that I marched there for this reason – it (Stalingrad) could have had any other name – I did it because it is an important place.
You can cut off traffic amounting to thirty millions tons there, nearly nine million tons of which are oil. All the wheat from the huge areas in the Ukraine and the Kuban region flows together there, so that it can be transported north.
Manganese ore is brought there; it is a gigantic trade centre. That centre I wanted to take and, as you know, we are modest – we have it! There are only a few small pockets left. Now the others say: “Then, why do they not fight more quickly?” – Because I do not want a second Verdun. I prefer to do it with very small assault parties. Time makes no difference here.
No ship comes up the Volga any more. That is what is decisive!

3) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller, Munich, 8th of November 1942.If there is no other way, then of course they regroup and say that it was a grave mistake for the Germans to go to Kirkenes, Narvik, or Stalingrad, as now for example. They ought to wait and see whether or not this was a strategic mistake. We already see many signs that tell us whether or not it was a mistake that we occupied the Ukraine, that we occupied the ore mines of Krivoy Rog, that we took control of the manganese ore. Was it truly such a great mistake that we occupied the Kuban region, which is perhaps the greatest breadbasket in the world? Was it also a mistake that we destroyed or captured about four fifths or five sixths of all refineries, that we took control of a production of nine to ten million tons of oil or brought it to a standstill, or that we prevented the further transport of perhaps seven, eight, or nine million tons up the Volga? I do not know whether or not all this was a mistake.

4) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller, Munich, 8th of November 1942.After all, we survived the last winter, a winter which, at the time when I spoke to You here last year, had not yet revealed itself in all its terrible danger. At the time, many people were weighed down by the memory of Napoleon’s fate in 1812. And now the winter of 1812 was only fifty percent as cold as the winter that we left behind us in the past year. We are prepared in a different manner this year. Perhaps, one soldier or another might lack something this winter. But, all in all, we are armed for this winter in a different manner. That I can say, even should it turn out to be as harsh as the last.
Not everything that happened to us last winter will happen to us this time.
I said once before that a great philosopher once said that a man who is not knocked down by a blow is made stronger by the blow. The storm, which failed to knock us down last winter, has only made us stronger.
No matter where the fronts are, Germany will always parry and attack, and I do not doubt for a minute that our flags will in the end succeed.



continued

is, we will always parry and always attack.

–––Today the front speaks. Everything else is just a fight of words.(1)

–––––

31st of January 1943.

In this greatest battle of all time, we cannot wait for Providence to grant us the victory.(2)

–––––

25th of February 1943.

From Hitler’s Proclamation.

You all know the circumstances under which, just as last year the enemy, with the help of the forces of nature, has succeeded during this winter as well in wiping out part of the results that had been achieved during the summer.(3)

–––––

22nd of March 1943.

From Hitler’s Speech.

–––The Almighty, Who has not deprived us of His blessing in all trials and has strengthened the power that dwells in us, therefore gives us His assistance in the future to fulfil that which we have to perform.(4)

–––––––––

33.


1) Adolf Hitler – Speech in the Löwenbräukeller, Munich, 8th of November 1942.Today, in the end, the front has the say. I will speak only on rare instances.
For the front’s language is so forceful and unique that, at any rate, it commits every individual German. Whoever reads the daily reports of our Wehrmacht and does not zealously avow his faith in his Volk as he hears time and again of these countless heroic acts cannot be helped by speeches.
I do not speak for the benefit of the enemy abroad, anyway. If Mr. Roosevelt says that he is not listening to my speeches – I am not speaking for the benefit of Mr. Roosevelt. I speak to him through that instrument through which it is only possible to speak now. And this instrument speaks loudly and clearly enough. I speak only on rare instances either to the movement or to my own German Volk.

2) Adolf Hitler – Proclamation for the 10th anniversary of the Power Taking, January 30, 1943.In this mightiest struggle of all time, we cannot expect that Providence give us victory as a present.

3) Adolf Hitler – Proclamation for the 23rd anniversary of the N.S.D.A.P. (read by Hermann Esser), Fuhrer Headquarters, 24th of February 1943.You are all aware of the circumstances, which allowed the enemy in the east, similar to the forces of nature last winter, to reverse in the course of this winter a part of those successes secured by the heroism of our soldiers in the summer. However, You also know that the path along which our party has travelled has likewise not been a secure or comfortable way to success. Instead, we suffered countless difficulties and setbacks, which the same enemies dealt to us and against whom we must fight today – against the whole world.

4) Adolf Hitler – Speech in Lichthof of the Zeughaus for the Heroes’ Memorial Day, Berlin, 21st of March 1943.May the Almighty, who has not denied us His blessings throughout these trials and Who has thereby reinforced our inherent strength, also grant us His assistance in the fulfilment of what we must do for our Volk, what we owe it, until the victory.



This full-page caricature shows Hitler in a brown uniform on delicate pink background while giving a speech standing on a low sculptural base on which “A. Hitler” is inscribed.

Judging by the wide open mouth and the body posture with the fencing arms, that must be a particularly intense place in the speech.

Out of Hitler’s mouth comes a white zig-zag line that goes up over his head and down his back as it thins, eventually stopping close to Hitler’s buttocks. On the line, the word “Blitzkrieg” is written 3 times, decreasing in size as the text is getting closer to the end.



Leningrad

3rd of July 1941.

The railway connection to Leningrad destroyed.

12th of June 1941.

Leningrad – Moscow line cut off.

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

–––in an energetic bombing attack, German bombers succeeded yesterday in cutting off the very important railway connection between Leningrad – which is now referred to exclusively as St. Petersburg in the official German reports – and Moscow.

16th of July 1941.

The encirclement of Leningrad is now almost complete.

Leningrad threatened.

–––the tip of the left flank faces south. Here, Leningrad is directly threatened, and observers here do not rule out the possibility that this armoured root will be able to continue directly towards Moscow, the heart of Russia.

4th of August 1941.

New German thrust this week.

–––––

Towards Leningrad.

–––well-informed military circles here expect that in the course of the coming week a new energetic thrust will probably be launched from the German side against the Soviet-Russian defence forces on the Eastern Front.

Military observers here do not hide the possibility that the German thrust will be directed at Leningrad, and that this city will perhaps be taken, even if a total suppression of the Red Army’s resistance is not expected.

37.



5th of August 1941.

–––according to the reports which have reached ministerial circles in Berlin this evening from the Fuhrer Headquarters, the main outer defences of Leningrad have fallen, and the capture of the city is believed to be only a matter of a few days.

–––Marshal Voroshilov has let part of the garrison move out to let it take up position outside the fortifications.

–––it has been assured from the German side that the most important decisions should be a closed chapter before winter really arrives in 8 weeks’ time. Of course, among the most important decisions is Moscow, this city which is a synthesis of the great Communist power. First the fall of Leningrad, then a flank attack on Moscow, such is the logical progression.

The fall of Kronstadt is expected.

–––along with Leningrad falls also Kronstadt, the Soviet Union’s famous naval base, from which the Sailors’ Rebellion spread in its time. The Russian Baltic Fleet will then only have the choice between surrendering or trying to break through to the Swedish territorial waters and be interned there.

18th of August 1941.

Leningrad containment further narrowed.

–––Signs indicate that the Germans now want to speed up the capture of the city.

23rd of August 1941.

The push towards Leningrad.

The entire defence area is sought to be cordoned off.

–––

–––Our troops are now advancing through the outermost defences of Fortress Leningrad.

1st of September 1941.

–––The German stranglehold on Leningrad is getting stronger and stronger, and after the fall of Wiborg the situation for the trapped Russian armies has become even more hopeless, it is declared tonight in responsible German circles. –

4th of September 1941.

The German main attack now appears to have been launched against Leningrad.

38.



8th of September 1941.

–––German infantrymen have penetrated the outer defence belt around Leningrad at a single point, according to what is reported from Berlin today. However, it is not announced where it has occurred.-

–––––

10th of September 1941.

–––it is not considered improbable here that the Germans will be able to enter Leningrad before the first snow falls.

–––––

11th of September 1941.

–––It is clear that the German side does not expect that Leningrad will fall so soon, even if the ring has closed more firmly in recent weeks. They say in Berlin that it is a secondary question when the city is conquered . . . . . .

–––––

12th of September 1941.

The time of the fall of Leningrad.

–––from the military side it is announced:

The British intelligence service tries again and again to attribute to the Germans very specific goals on the Eastern Front. These efforts are so old and hopeless that the inventors of such messages should definitely give up. It only arouses cheerfulness when, for example, it is ascribed to the Germans that they intended to capture Leningrad at a certain time. The time when Leningrad is to be taken is determined by the Germans and no one else in the world.

–––––

 
 

–––and thus passed October, November, December 1941 and January, February, March, April, May 1942.

39.



17th of June 1942.

Storming of Leningrad is now expected

–––reinforcements are constantly arriving, and all signs indicate that a storm on Leningrad is imminent.

–––––

18th of June 1942.

No offensive at Leningrad

 

18th of July 1942.

Signs of impending offensive against Leningrad

The twentieth of January, nineteen forty-three

–––The Russian reports that the war of siege around Leningrad has been broken and Schlüsselburg(1) recaptured are described by the German side as “absolutely incorrect”.

–––––

14th of February 1943.

–––The fighting culminates in ferocity in the Leningrad area itself. The Russian forces trapped in the city continue their desperate attempt to break out despite bloody losses. – Suddenly, as always, new large amounts of Russian reinforcements have appeared.

40.


1) Schlüsselburg is the German name for the strategically located fortress town of Shlisselburg at the outlet of the Neva river from Lake Ladoga. The fortress itself is located on an island.
Shortly before Shlisselburg city was occupied by the German troops on the 8th of September 1941, a garrison of 350 Soviet soldiers was sent to the city fortress on the island of Orehovets. The garrison held the fortress for 500 days, preventing the Germans from landing there and cutting off the last transit route from Leningrad. The heavy artillery fire of the Germans destroyed all the buildings inside the fortress and part of the outer towers and walls, but despite many attempts it was not captured. During “Operation Iskra” on the 18 th of January 1943 the siege of the fortress was lifted.
In record time and under constant German artillery fire, a train bridge was built across the Neva, and the first trainload of badly needed food to Leningrad passed through Shlisselburg already on the 7th of February 1943, and during the night another 20-25 trains were sent across the bridge.



10th of October 1941.

Dr. Dietrich(1) announced that the campaign to the east was decided with the destruction of Timoshenko’s army group. The decision has been concluded decisively in military terms, he stated. The military decision to the east will proceed as we wish. Soviet-Russia is militarily out of the game by this last mighty blow we have inflicted upon him. The English dream of the two-front war has definitely come to an end.

Perhaps English propagandists will now try to console themselves with the slogan of a reconstruction of the Soviet-Russian army or with the gigantic Soviet-Russian space and once again shroud the world public in fog. Such aspirations are military dilettantism. The Reich’s opponents can rest assured that the Fuhrer is not the man who will give them time to get to grips again.

You cannot, concludes Dr. Dietrich, blame me for ever, when I was facing You, giving You false information. Today, too, I guarantee You, with my good name as collateral, that my – and I can call it that – this time sensational information is correct. –

41.


1) Jacob Otto Dietrich (1897-1952). German SS officer and incarnate Nazi. The Third Reich’s chief press officer and confidant of Adolf Hitler. (Source: Wikipedia)



25th of November 1941.

It is noteworthy that General Haase(1) attaches some importance to Stalin’s personal supreme leadership. He writes that after leaving the Kremlin, Stalin must rule from an armoured train and is thus unable to hold all the threads of defence in his hand. General Haase expresses doubt that under these conditions Stalin will be able to keep the starving and freezing masses in check and is thus in the same line of thinking that is increasingly heard expressed in insightful and usually well-informed circles, that the German side reckons with the possibility of a revolution against the Soviet government during the winter.

–––––

27th of November 1941.

–––and on this country’s indescribably bad country roads, we have succeeded in completely and utterly beat the world’s numerically largest, well-equipped army.

The posterity will forever thank the Fuhrer that, with the help of the German and allied troops, he succeeded in crushing this colossus.

In military terms, England’s last ally on the mainland has thus ceased to be a factor of importance. Germany and Italy with their allies have thus become unassailable in Europe. Tremendous forces have been freed up. Economically, the Axis(2) and its friends are now dependent on overseas countries. Europe has become blockade-proof once and for all. The grain of European Russia can fully cover the needs of the war. Its war industry is brought at the service of Germany and the Allies. The organisation of this huge area is already in full swing, thus the two last and decisive prerequisites for the final victory of the Axis and its allies have been provided.

The lack of trained soldiers and equipment makes it impossible for the Soviet Union to carry out military efforts in the future.

(von Ribbentrop)

43.


1) Konrad Ludwig Benno Haase (1888–1963). German general during World War II. Took part in the defense of Dieppe as a division commander, awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class. Not to be confused with General Curt Haase.

2) In historiography, the term ‘Axis’ or ‘Axis Powers’ is used for the 3 fascist states of Germany, Italy and Japan that fought on the same side in World War II. In the quote, however, von Ribbentrop uses the expression about both sides in the war, which can cause confusion.
The first mention of the ‘Axis’ thus refers to the anti-fascist combatants Great Britain and the Soviet Union (and later the USA), usually referred to as ‘The Allies’ (and also includes France).



27th of June 1942.

With regard to the quality of the manpower, a well-known military writer, Major Mossdorf, has put forward the conjecture that in the autumn battles the Russians had not yet put their elite forces into battle but kept them in readiness for the expected spring or summer offensive – in defence of Moscow or the Caucasus.

31st of August 1942.

Göring declares:

The Soviet Union is considered as good as liquidated – it is only a question of time as to when the German war command will consider, that the Bolsheviks have been driven sufficiently “far away from the blessed pastures of Europe”, as Hitler once formulated the goal of the war against Russia; establish a secure border-lock to the east and declare this part of the war concluded.

19th of November 1942.

–––when one considers that the Soviet Union’s reserves had already been greatly stretched by the summer and autumn offensives and by last year’s winter war, one could rightly claim today that it was dangerously approaching the stage when they were exhausted.

(Goebbels)

31st of January 1943.

Reichsmarschall Göring:

The Russians, the Reichsmarschall repeated, have extracted the last of their potential to descend upon us. However, I am of the conviction that this is the last bid that could be squeezed out of the people. –

Over the course of 15 years, Russia has built up the most formidable armament any nation has ever accompliced.

 

44.



31st of August 1942.

Göring declares:

The Soviet Union is considered as good as liquidated – it is only a question of time as to when the German war command will consider, that the Bolsheviks have been driven sufficiently “far away from the blessed pastures of Europe”, as Hitler once formulated the goal of the war against Russia; establish a secure border-lock to the east and declare this part of the war concluded.(1)


1) This large caricature shows 3 of the most notorious top Nazis – Hitler, Göring and Goebbels – standing next to each other, with Göring in the middle. They are blue on a dirty-yellow background and they emanate a certainty of victory. Hitler on the left is wearing a slash belt and tie with a swastika while the fat Göring, of course, appears in full parade uniform with a large iron cross in front and “herring salad” on his shoulders. Goebbels, only half in size, on the other hand, has a somewhat patchy expression in his civilian outfit with a black dovetail and striped trousers. Hitler Heils confidently with a smile around his mouth and Göring, grinning, holds a club over his head, while Goebbels, in facial profile with a giant nose, looks up at him with the right arm raised. All 3 Nazis are standing with their feet covered up above the ankles in a pool of red blood, which, on closer inspection turns out to have the outlines of a lying Soviet soldier; the symbol of the defeated Red Army.

The story in this caricature has a continuation that we will meet a few pages further on…



27th of March 1943

–––Germany cannot measure up to the adversary in terms of quantity of production. Victory therefore depends on quality, and we must call for new and revolutionary ideas. New weapons, new methods must be devised, it would be best if we could create something that has never been seen before.

(Dr. Leyders)(1)

13th of March 1943

The enemy’s potential will be exhausted at some point – unfortunately we don’t know exactly when.

19th of February 1943.

Goebbels writes:

It is understandable that, due to the Bolshevik regime’s magnificent camouflage, we have not properly assessed the war potential of the Soviet Union. Only now is it revealed to us in all its ferocious grandeur.


1) Dr. Leyders. It has not been possible to find any information whatsoever about this person.



Goebbels writes: It is understandable that, due to the Bolshevik regime’s magnificent camouflage, we have not properly assessed the war potential of the Soviet Union. Only now is it revealed to us in all its ferocious grandeur.(1)


1) In this caricature we meet again the 3 top Nazis from a few pages back: Hitler, Göring and Goebbels, but now they are not so strutting any more.
All black, they stand next to each other, stiff with fright with their arms stiffly down the sides and their hair bristling straight up in the air. We see them from behind on the bottom half of the page while looking up at something. Hitler is still in slanting straps and breeches, but now makes a lighter calf-kneed figure with the tips of his toes turned inward in a taken aback posture. The lighter wheel-legged Göring stands with his shoulders pulled all the way up around his ears and a dangling rump in the parade uniform, while little Goebbels seems to have tightened his buttocks so much that they have completely disappeared.

If we follow their gaze, we see on the top half of the page, above the short text in the middle, again the soldier of the Red Army, whose blood they enjoyed wading in. He is no longer lying down, no, now his slender red outline towers up solidly surrounded by 9 powerful red cannon barrels with different calibre muzzle all pointing forward, ready to fire. In the sky above, the airspace is densely packed with 49 red fighters and bombers in formation facing the black enemies.



2nd of January 1942.

–––astonishing is the daring use of the latest technical inventions by the Russians. When the Finns marched onto Hangö(1), they became for the first time acquainted with machine guns, which were triggered by means of two photocells. A similar phenomenon were the so-called “gramophone free shooters”, gramophones which kept machine guns going while the Russians left the fortress.

–––––

 

51.


1) Hankö (Finnish: Hanko) is a town and municipality in Nyland County, Finland.
After the defeat by the Red Army in the Winter War in 1940, Finland was forced to cede Hankö to the Soviet Union as a naval base for 30 years. The entire population of the area was then evacuated, and when the Continuation War, as the Finns call it, in which Finland fought on the side of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, broke out in 1941, there were a number of battles on the Hanko front, and on the night of the 2nd of December 1941 the last Soviet troops left Hanko. During their presence, the Soviet forces had built a large airfield, which today is used by the ”Hangö Flying Club”.
After the Finnish defeat in september 1944 with the Armistice of Moscow and the final peace treaty of 1947, Finland was allowed to keep Hankö, while the Soviet Union got the Porkala area instead. (Source: Wikipedia from multiple languages)



3rd of January 1942.

German military circles consoled as winter is now winding down.

–––––

4th of January 1942.

–––from the German military side, one will see in this a sign of a failing overview on the part of the Russian army leadership, just as the traffic conditions behind the Russian front are believed to put significant difficulties in the way of the cooperation and coordination of the individual Russian armies.

These difficulties become greater the further the Russians manage to advance–––

–––––

17th of January 1942.

Russian soldiers do not have uniforms

–––numerous Bolsheviks who approx. 14 days before this attack had been assigned to the regiment, had not been issued with uniforms, they had to go to attack in civilian clothes.

–––––

7th of February 1942.

Battles in meter-high snow and howling blizzards.

–––The counterattack by German troops in the area north-west of Kursk was, despite an icy snowstorm, carried out successfully. What it means to wade through meter-high snow in a howling blizzard and fight with a wintry, hard-nosed enemy, can only be judged by those who have been there themselves. To operate the rifle or machine gun with frozen hands, or to lie by the machine gun and then advance, cut down the enemy, take prisoners and booty are almost inhuman feats that only German troops are capable of in the long run. The Bolsheviks had high hopes for the severe Russian winter. In vain. – Now they themselves are beginning to suffer from the unusually harsh winter. Now, on Stalin’s orders, the Bolshevik population must hand over its woolen belongings. What in Germany was the object of a spontaneous and large-scale collection, turns there into a predatory operation, which is carried out by force by the Cheka(1). The German defence has also been very successful. Despite meter-high snowdrifts and up to 36 degrees of cold, German divisions in a relatively small area have succeeded in inflicting losses on the Bolsheviks, which have been unusually bloody.

–––––

52.


1) Cheka – Abbreviation from the first letters of The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to Combat Counter-Revolution and Sabotage. (ЧК – чрезвычайная комиссия) that was operational between 1917 and 1922.



8th of February 1942.

–––This article also highlights the excellent soldiering skills of the Siberian divisions and declares that the Soviet Union at this point has not upended any of the traditions of old Russia.

–––––

17th of February 1942.

–––from the German military side, it is stated today that the battle on the Eastern Front has taken such a turn that one can no longer expect major attacks by Soviet forces.

–––Finally, it is emphasised that there has been more wear and tear on the Russian masses of men and material than on the German, as a result from the tireless Russian attacks that have been carried out with an enormous loss.

–––––

26th of February 1942.

–––one must come to terms with the fact that even the spring work in the occupied territories cannot bring about any turning point in Europe’s food supply. This will also not be possible due to the transport conditions. But there will be success in creating the conditions for the organisation of the 1943 harvest to be able to proceed under as favourable conditions as possible through far-sighted precautions.

Attention is drawn to the fact that only few workforces are available for the development of agriculture in the conquered eastern areas. However, these are experts who work closely with the population.

–––––

1st of March 1942.

A Soviet tank with a crew of 15.(1)

–––––

During the battles in the Baltic region, the German troops encountered a new type of Russian armour, a giant tank whose size is estimated at 80-90 tons and whose crew includes up to 15 men.

–––––

53.


1) Such a giant tank weighing 80-90 tons did not exist. At least not as far as we could find out. So it is something of a mystery how the Germans could have met them, and of course it invites the reader to do own interpretation.
The heaviest tank we have been able to find and which could perhaps fit with the German description, is the T-35A from 1938 with a weight of 42 tons and a crew of 9-11 tankists. But! Only a total of 63 such tanks were built!
In 1942, the heaviest tank had a weight of 42 tons and a crew of 5-6 tankists.
So, what happened to the Germans in the Baltics in the encounter with the ’Soviet tank monster’? Our guess, it was a case of fright, which made us think about the Russian proverb “fear has big eyes.” (“У страха глаза велики”)
The following page lists several heavy tanks at the disposal of the Soviet Union up to 1945.



20th of March 1942.

The value of the conquered eastern territories now and in the future.

–––––––

Finally, the German official side refers to the conquered areas in Eastern Europe. As will be recalled, a few months ago a warning was given against placing too great expectations on Ukraine as a granary, as the Ministry of Agriculture’s Press Service indicated that it was not possible to count on these areas to be able to bring any crops for the first year as relief for the German food situation. Under the existing circumstances, however, it has been thought that it is of value to refer to the fact that Germany still contains a supply potential.

––––––

21st of March 1942.

–––The Russian winter is getting colder and colder. Today, the German press does not content itself with Hitler’s declaration that the winter in Russia is the coldest in 140 years, but quotes meteorologists who believe that this is “the harshest that mankind has experienced in historical time”, that is the absolute record in terms of winters.

––––––

2nd of April 1942.

–––Regarding the spring offensive, it is said today that it will not be a partial offensive, but a total offensive on the entire front by a force that the Russians have never experienced before. When this offensive will begin, no one knows with certainty yet, but “The Russian army must be completely crushed”.

––––––

28th of April 1942.

–––It is difficult to form any opinion as to the extent to which the Russians have succeeded since the beginning of the war in moving their war industry eastwards. The relatively large amount of completely modern war material could indicate that it would be incorrect to believe that far too large parts of the Russian war industry have been destroyed. The most significant deficiency for the Russian army, at least on the northern fronts, seems to be the lack of gasoline. The difficult transport conditions from the Caucasus to the White Sea probably play a leading role here.

––––––

54.



27th of May 1942.

–––there are, according to reports in Berlin, no sign yet that the trapped Russian troops have given up hope of breaking out of the incirclement and have been gripped by panic. It is emphasised, on the contrary, that the Russians fight extremely skillfully and bravely, and from the military side it is declared that the Russian soldiers offer the toughest resistance the Germans have yet encountered, and fight better than both the French and the English.

––––––

7th of June 1942.

Ukraine is no Land of Cockaigne(1)

–––Under the heading “Ukraine, a wonderland?” the Ministry of Agriculture’s Foodstuff Departement tells the readers of “Nachtausgabe”(2) that Ukraine is far from being any kind of the Land of Cockaigne, as some Germans seem to have been inclined to imagine as a result of the propagandistic slogans “In Europe’s Grainary”, which were attached to Ukraine during the previous year’s military operations. The fact is, the article states, that the German agricultural areas per unit area has so far yielded exactly twice the yield of the Ukrainian ones.

––––––

12th of June 1942.

–––the natural rock crevices and mountain caves within the city area(3) have become the residences of the entire encircled population. The entire city has practically moved underground. Extensive measures have been taken here to make life as comfortable as possible. There are dormitories, hospitals, reading rooms, restaurants, yes, even cinemas. The fact that water, gas and electricity are included is only mentioned for the sake of completeness.

––––––

14th of June 1942.

–––It is still possible to raise million-strong armies in the Soviet Union, one admits from the German military side, but will they have enough equipment? Will they have tanks, aeroplanes, flamethrowers, anti-aircraft artillery, anti-tank guns, machine guns to the extent necessary to fight an enemy who, through a series of victorious campaigns, has acquired a mastery in the use of these very weapons? If they were to be provided with such weapons, would they be sufficiently trained to make effective use of them?

––––––

55.


1) Cockaigne or Cockayne is a land of plenty in medieval myth, an imaginary place of extreme luxury and ease where physical comforts and pleasures are always immediately at hand and where the harshness of medieval peasant life does not exist. The term has German origins; “Schlaraffenland”. Comes from ‘sluraff’ – lazy person, ‘affe’ – monkey, and ‘land’ – country. “Slaraffenland is a paradise-like fairyland or happy land where people live in pleasant idleness and get everything they want without working for it.” (Source: Wikipedia)

2) “Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung”. The newspaper was published by Scherl Verlag with two daily issues. The last issue was published on 18th of February 1945. The content was National Socialist (Nazi) issues and concerns. During World War II, the newspaper extensively reported on the events of the war.
From 19th of February 1945 “Berliner Illustrierte Nachtausgabe” (Berliner Illustrated Night Edition) was published together with the National Socialist (Nazi) newspaper “Der Angriff” (The Attack), which was published up to 24th of April 1945 during the Battle of Berlin. (Source: Metapedia)

3) The city referred to is in all probability Sevastopol, the main city on the Crimean peninsula. The inserted photo shows openings into the caves. The mountain formation is located at the city limits; it and others like it were used by locals to shelter from bombardments and artillery shelling during the German siege. (Photo: Stanislav, 2010.)
The fighting for Sevastopol was extremely fierce and the city came under German siege from 30th of October 1941 until 4th of July 1942, when it was finally occupied.
The Red Army liberated Sevastopol on 9th of May 1944. On 10th of May, one hour after midnight, Moscow saluted the liberators of the city with 24 volleys of 342 guns.
By the time of liberation, only 3.000 residents remained in Sevastopol out of the population of 109.000 who had lived in the city at the outbreak of the war. Only 6% of the city’s residential buildings survived. (Source: RIA)



22nd of June 1942.

–––There seems to be no doubt that the Russians have succeeded in evacuating not only the industrial workers, but a large part of the industry in Ukraine to the Volga or Ural regions. From the competent German side, it has previously been mentioned that 10 million industrial workers, each, so to speak, with a machine part in his pocket, have been moved behind the Russian front. This figure was later disputed by the German side, but German correspondents, who describe life and work in the conquered Russian territories, emphasise precisely that the whole of Ukraine seems to be populated entirely by women.

–––––

7th of July 1942.

New Russian city has grown up in the east.

–––––

Aviograd(1), The City of Airplanes.

–––––

–––it was announced last night that a new city, which can already be described as one of the largest in the Soviet Union, has grown up in the eastern part of Russia during the war. The city is called Aviograd – City of Airplanes – and it grew up around the Soviet-Russian Aeroplan.

–––––

14th of August 1942.

Next German push goes in the direction of Astrakan(2).

The troops are not expected to face much resistance on the vast Kalmyk Steppe.

–––––

14th of July 1942.

–––The optimism on the German side regarding the continued operations is strikingly high. In military circles, there is already talk of an imminent disaster for Timoshenko. His troops are said be in a chaotic situation. The enemy forces are repeatedly routed and surrounded, and their lines of retreat are sometimes completely blocked by rapid German manoeuvres.

–––––

13th of August 1942

German special report on the annihilation of two Russian armies.

–––––

13th of August 1942.

–––on the other hand, it is stated from German military side that the Russian resistance as well as the quality of the Russian material does not seem to be in any way diminished in striking power.

–––––

56.


1) “Aviograd” that is reported in the Danish and German press, is the German name for Novosibirsk. The correct Russian spelling would have been “Aviagrad”. Here is what the Library of Siberian Local Knowledge has to say about it: “It is not surprising that aircraft factories, design bureaus, a branch of the Central Aviation Institute, and the rapid formation of a new defence centre as a whole attracted the attention of the German intelligence. In the documents of the Abwehr the concept of “Aviagrad” appeared. The fascists meant Novosibirsk by it…”

2) Astrahan was written as Astrakan in the Danish press, possibly due to the redundant ‘k’ in the ‘kh’ notation of the Russian ‘h’-sound, when some editor omitted the actual “h” thinking it was mute.



22nd of July 1942.

Timoshenko gathers all reserves in front of Rostov, the Caucasus and Stalingrad.

25th of August 1942.

The decisive battle for Stalingrad has begun, the German military says this evening, referring to the announcements of the German army report that German infantry and rapid troops have advanced across the Don and have penetrated strong Russian fortifications on the left bank of the river.

6th of September 1942.

–––Stalingrad will fall after all, it is believed that this cannot last long, it is a matter of a few days.

10th of September 1942.

regarding the battles at Stalingrad, today the opinion is, that the fate of the city is being finalised slowly, but surely.

15th of September 1942.

From the military side in Berlin, it is declared today, that the fate of Stalingrad is sealed.

16th of September 1942.

–––it is declared from the German military side that the high command of the armed forces only announces the facts and never makes predictions. A prediction regarding the fall of Stalingrad has therefore never been made.

17th of September 1942.

The final battle for Stalingrad

Army report of the victorious
assault.

–––––

–––the victorious assault at Stalingrad by the German troops, superbly supported by the forces of the Air Force, gains further ground. –

57.



30th of September 1942.

Stalingrad’s fall imminent

–––in the usually well-informed German circles, on Tuesday afternoon, on the basis of the High Command’s latest report from Stalingrad, they now definitively count on the Volga-city’s impending fall.

19th of October 1942.

Battle for the Russians’ last position in Stalingrad’s iron and steel mills “Red October”.

25th of November 1942.

–––it is admitted, however, that the offensive at Stalingrad is conducted with strong forces and that the defensive battles are fierce.

18th of November 1942.

The Battle of Stalingrad
is considered over –
following Hitler’s statements.

10th of December 1942.

–––the Russian activity is heaviest in the section north of Stalingrad, where the Russians attack at seven different locations, but are still repulsed. It is in itself illogical that the Russians halt their attack on Stalingrad south of the city and continue north, but, as stated in the military circles, it looks as if the Russian major offensive has lost its breath altogether.

4th of February 1943.

–––Führer Headquarters announces:

 

The battle for Stalingrad is over

 

58.



7th of September 1942.

Rosenberg(1) on discontent in the occupied countries.

Only Germany and its direct allies have the right to make claims.

–––––––

–––Alfred Rosenberg publishes today in the “Völkischer Beobachter” a long article in which he turns with sharp words against the disaffected circles in the occupied countries who dare to make demands of Germany. Minister Rosenberg asserts that these circles sometimes behave “as if it were not they who had declared war on us, but we who had attacked them”, and he emphasises very strongly that no one but Germany and her immediate allies have any right to make claims.

–––The minister writes that there are people in the occupied countries who are dissatisfied with the fact that they cannot maintain their standard of living from 1930, and therefore willingly lend an ear to foreign propaganda broadcasts. Based on his experiences in the occupied eastern areas, which have previously been under the Russian dominion, the Minister states that he could almost wish these disaffected people to come under the Bolshevik dominion for some time; then, he believes, they would consider the demands that Germany must make of them as

“a saving opportunity and not as a challenge that they can criticise”.
The more willingly all the peoples of Europe help Germany and her allies, the sooner will the war be brought to an end; those who believe that they can adjust as if nothing has happened at all “and put forth the dissent” on display, when it is now also required of them to make a deeper sacrifice in their way of life, “those who refuse to assume the guilt, which the governments they once elected themselves have incurred”, their behaviour will entrench deeply into the memories of the German people.
It is high time, concludes the Minister, that all those responsible in the occupied territories open their eyes to the whole question of Fate.
This hard Fate reads as follows: “to demand pertains only to the Germans and their allies, because they are leading the struggle for the salvation of Europe with their entire existence in the balance. To help with all their might is the duty of all those who have in one way or another come to be situated in the area of the great struggle”.

–––––

59.


1) Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1946). Top Nazi and the party’s leading racial ideologist, incarnate anti-communist and anti-Semite. Born in Estonia, sentenced to death and executed in Nuremberg for, among other, crimes against humanity. In the early years, he exercised a decisive influence on the development of Hitler’s thinking and his visions of his own significance. Held powerful political posts in the party and state, was active in the Thule Society, published anti-Semitic literature and was the holder of the Nazi “Blood Order”.
Was called by Hitler “the church Father of National Socialism”. (Source: Wikipedia)



19th of September 1942.

Objectives of the German Offensive

–––––

–––The goal of the German summer offensive was today summarised as follows: The intention was to conquer the entire Don-region, the so-called black soil, and thus the rest of Ukraine. Furthermore, the Russians would be deprived of the raw material supplies in the areas between Kharkov and Stalingrad and south of the Don, so that the Bolshevik armaments could thereby be dealt a tangible blow. Finally, the Caucasus region would be cut off from the rest of the Soviet area, especially with the oil in mind. With the fall of Stalingrad, the latter task is considered to be essentially solved.

–––––

21st of September 1942

–––It is not known to what extent, while in peacetime, the Russians succeeded in carrying out the second five-year plan’s forward-looking relocation of heavy industry from west to east; it is not known what stocks of raw materials and foodstuffs the Soviet Union possesses; it is not known to what extent the plans to turn Kazakhstan behind the Ural mountain range into a new Ukraine have been realised, partly before the war, partly after the conquest of Ukraine; it is not known whether it they succeeded in developing a traffic network east of the Volga, what capacity the traffic east and north of the Caspian Sea and in Siberia has reached, or how rich the ore beds are in the Urals.

22nd of September 1942.

–––On the occasion of some announcements sent out from the British side, which could give the appearance that a turning point in the battle in favour of the Russians was about to occur, it is stated from the German military side that if there at the moment should be any talk of some turning point, then it is surely a turning point in favour of the Germans.

–––––

2nd of October 1942.

The newspapers today are completely dominated by the People’s Assembly and Hitler’s speech(1); we quote the following full-page headlines: “No one can wrestle the victory from us” – “The Führer: Victory is ours, The price of victory is the real People’s State”. “This year’s goal to the east: The opponent must be cut off from wheat, coal, oil, Volga-traffic. – Towards a glorious victory”. “The Führer: – No bourgeois state will survive this war.”

–––––

60.


1) The quotes are from the speech given in the Sportpalast (Sports Palace) in Berlin on the 30th of September 1942.
Parts of the speech are reproduced in the notes on pages 30 and 31.



2nd of October 1942.

–––on the German side, it has been clear for over a year that the Soviet Union’s will to resist did not allow itself to be paralysed by a series of the hardest defeats, but that it will continue the war as long as it is in possession of soldiers and material. On the other hand, it has caused astonishment that, after the loss of the main armament centers, the Soviets were still able to produce airplanes, armoured vehicles, and weapons in such quantity that the Russian deployment of equipment at certain areas of the front exceeded what had been seen so far.

–––––

2nd of October 1942.

In Berlin today there has been lively interest in an announcement, according to which 100 British and American tanks are to have been deployed against the Germans in the northern part of Stalingrad in relief attacks carried out by the Russians. The German reports state that 65 of these tanks were destroyed in close combat and 35 at longer range. – These messages, which testify to the Allied aid to Russia, are interpreted in Berlin as proof not only of the superiority of German weapons, but also of the Russian lack of material.

–––––

20th of October 1942.

Deliveries of winter equipment to the German troops, which have been in progress since the middle of September, are now essentially completed, so that the German armies on the Eastern Front are this time secured against all surprises.

–––––

15th of November 1942.

A lot has changed since last year

–––From the military side, the view is expressed that the winter will soon bring the operations to a halt, and an interesting comparison is made with the situation at the same time last year, when the winter stopped the fighting. At that time, the German High Command was surprised by an unusually hard winter, which set in earlier than expected, while the German offensive movements were still in full development on almost all front sections. When the Russians launched their winter offensive at the same time, the German armies were set into a difficult position.

–––––

61.



25th of November 1942.

–––by an enormous concentration of men and material, the Russians have succeeded in a few places in breaking through the German defence lines, and some of their tanks are still driving around behind the lines. However, it is emphasised that it will be possible at any time for an enemy who puts such great effort into it to break through a sufficiently strong defensive line.

–––––

25th of November 1942.

–––this attack, the aim of which is to break through the German defensive front and cut off the two main railway lines which lead into Stalingrad from the west and respectively from Kalach and Abganerovo(1), and then, if possible, to enclose the German forces which, in the Stalingrad zone, are holding their “Choking grip on the Volga connection”, is advanced by a total of 3 Russian armies. The attacking forces, according to Moscow Radio, are set up at night under cover of long-range artillery fire. After the operations in the adversary’s minefields, the break-in followed, and now the battles are predominantly defined by the armoured vehicle clashes.

–––––

29th of November 1942.

–––on the German side, they do not at all hide the fact that they expect a fierce and embittered Russian combat activity during the winter. The Eastern Front will, as the SS magazine “Das Schwarze Korps”(2) writes, certainly become the scene of very tough battles in the coming months, and from the military side it is pointed out again that the Russians have indeed shown to be in possession of terrifying amounts of military equipment.

–––––

7th of December 1942.

–––The “Essener Nationalzeitung”(3) depicts today the life of the German troops during the terrible cold on the Moscow Front. The soldiers dig deep holes in the frost-hardened ground, drive the armoured vehicles over the holes as a kind of roof and then light small fires in the holes in the ground, the motor vehicles are well equipped with snow chains, radiator hoods, heating plates and antifreeze coolant, but several times during the night the drivers still have to climb out of the holes and start the engines so they can be warm for the morning’s operations. In this way, the correspondent writes, it has been possible to continue to carry out the attacks.

The correspondence is of course a few days old, and at the time it was written it was “only” 25 degrees below zero. Now it seems as if the last 10 degrees of frost have at least temporarily proved stronger than the drivers’ ingenuity.

–––––

62.


1)

2) Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps) was the official weekly newspaper of the SS (“Schutstaffel”), Hitler’s security staff led by Heinrich Himmler.
The first edition was published in 1935 and the magazine was a free newspaper. The editorial line was hostile to numerous groups, with frequent articles denouncing the Catholic Church, Jews, Communism and Freemasonry, among others.
The magazine was published in close cooperation with the security service SD (“Sicherheitsdienst”), which had considerable editorial control. By 1944, the circulation had reached 750,000 copies.
“Das Schwarze Korps” achieved some distribution outside Germany. (Source: Wikipedia)

3)



3rd of December 1942.

–––The situation as a whole does not seem to have changed significantly since yesterday. It is declared in Berlin that the offensives around and in Stalingrad and in the great Don arc have been brought to a standstill, and that the initiative is increasingly passing into German hands.

–––––

5th of December 1942.

–––even at Stalingrad, the German army report in the last days no longer speaks of offensive undertakings, but of “Fending off Russian counter-attacks and thrusts”.

–––––

6th of December 1942.

According to the German view, the Russians will not reach Rostov. In the previous offensives, the Russians have only managed to advance a maximum of 80 km on a width of 60 km.

–––––

9th of December 1942.

German tactics of silence before taking precautions against the Russian offensives.

–––––

11th of December 1942.

–––how does the War-leadership of the Soviet Union manage to stamp so much materiel on its feet at a time when, for example, Stalingrad, which was once generally considered to be a centre of the tank industry, for over 1/3 of a year has been put out of action?

–––––

21st of December 1942.

–––it is also emphasised that the Russian winter has caused difficulties in connection with the accommodation of the German troops in Russia. These difficulties exceed the problems that have had to be solved in the occupied areas of Western Europe and the Balkans, since the Russians have, to the greatest extent possible, razed the territories that the Germans have conquered.

–––––

63.



4th of January 1943.

–––in a German depiction from the Russian front, it is declared, among other things, that the Germans certainly do not have the same attitude or the same methods as the Russians, but that Bolshevik military leaders are capable of constantly introducing new tactical methods, of instinctively adapting to new situations, of course without rules, but very effectively, to take advantage of significant happenstances.

Their tanks have metre-wide tracks now this winter and a damn wide “chest” says the German author. They have good skiers for long distances and their speciality is everywhere, even through the deepest snow, “to drag grenade launchers with them”. Their aviators with the red star fly in curves and dart about like devils, and when at last they are set on fire, they throw themselves with their last strength into the German supply road.

17th of January 1943.

–––the German leadership decided to tap into the strategy of leaving large garrisons in hedgehog positions as far as possible and thus enabling German counter-attacks in the enemy’s flank and rear or against his lines of communication, plus they can possibly become significant starting bases for new German operations in the spring.

25th of January 1943.

Any tendency to underestimate the Russians has now completely disappeared from the German press – it is recognised that the war is now being waged “between the powers of approximately equal strength”.

29th of January 1943.

–––after the withdrawal from Voronezh itself, the Germans thus seem, according to the military information, to continue their withdrawal with the aim of reaching a so-called “Shortened line”, which has apparently been prepared behind the troops.

6th of February 1943.

The old Winter-line and its advantages.

–––––

In the Voronezh sector, the Russians have again extended the front in a northern direction. Thus, the front approaches the locations that are still remembered from last year’s winter war and the then German “Winter-line”, to which the German armies fell back when the cold aborted the attack on Moscow.

West of Voronezh, the Russians have succeeded in penetrating the German ranks, it is further stated from the military side in Berlin, but the Germans are still masters of the situation, all the more so as they have an ally in the meter-high snow.

64.



13th of February 1943.

–––and that the Russians have 4 – 5 million men at their disposal on the Southern Front, all of whom have the natural innate prerequisites for waging winter war.

15th of February 1943.

–––it is announced from the German side that Rostov and Voroshilovgrad have been evacuated by the German troops. The evacuation is said to have taken place within the framework of the major shortening of the southern section of the Eastern Front, which has been under development since the fall of Stalingrad.

16th of February 1943.

–––on the one hand, completely new forces have also been deployed, which have not previously been in the line of fire, their equipment is still impeccable, and the tanks, which in the last days have rolled forward in still undiminished numbers towards the German positions, are brand new, freshly delivered from the Russian weapons-smithies, whose capacity seems quite surprising.

17th of February 1943.

–––from the German side, it is claimed here that the Germans are exploiting the size of the Russian space as a weapon against the Russians. Until now, they have referred to “General Space” as Russia’s ally. But that is not the case at all, the German side now says.

24th of February 1943.

Germany calculates Russian losses at 18.2 million men.

25th of February 1943.

–––What has happened is, it is said, that as a result of the still continuing “Front-shortening” the German resistance has become more concentrated and therefore stronger and can show more positive results. The planned movements in a westerly direction in the Donets basin continue.

65.



20th of February 1943.

–––However, in this connection it is also pointed out that it is not certain that the impending labour mobilisation will necessarily lead to a renewed immigration to Germany of foreign workers. On the contrary, there now seems to be an increasing tendency to employ as many foreign workers as possible in the execution of armour orders which are assigned to factories and companies in their own respective countries.

26th of February 1943.

From the German military side, the offensive thrusts that the Russians have launched in the last day on all sections of the Eastern Front are described as the absolute utmost effort by the Soviet Union to try to force a decision this winter.

–––Such losses, it is said tonight from the German military side, a nation cannot bear at all. There is therefore every reason to believe that, militarily, the Soviet Union must be close to exhaustion, and these are the last efforts of strength that are being experienced on the Eastern Front these days.

6th of April 1943.

The mud-period over –
the offensive can commence

20th of April 1943.

–––In the magazine “Das Schwarze Korps”(1) some considerations are made about the defensive strategy and it is opinioned that people in general are inclined to believe that the initiative must lie with the attacker. This seemingly understandable view, according to the magazine, often leads to notions that the defender has absolutely no opportunity to claim victory, but these views are, it is explained, completely “erroneous and populistic”. The fact that one party is forced into the defensive is, it is said, not always proof that it will be the defender who loses the war, and just as little is the offensive strategy proof of overwhelming strength.

66.


1) See footnote 2 on page 62.



12th of May 1943.

–––One could e.g. imagine the possibility of a German summer offensive directed at Vologda. If the Germans succeed in carrying out this operation, essentially the entire Finnish-Russian military problem would be cleared out of the way with one blow, since the Finnish front – except for its very northern section – would thereby disappear.

Based on such a theory, the bombardment of Leningrad can perhaps be seen as the prelude to the German summer offensive.

–––––

13th of May 1943.

” An almost clearly pronounced lack of camaraderie in everyday life “, writes a German newspaper.

–––––

13th of May 1943.

Russian superiority in the air

Quite surprisingly, this evening comes the announcement that the Red Air Force is currently claiming considerable superiority over the entire Kuban section, and under these circumstances, the prospects for a successful completion of the otherwise very dangerous landing operation in the lagoon area of the Sea of Azov must naturally be significantly greater than one has so far been able to assume.

–––––

17th of May 1943.

–––However, one must disregard a number of areas to the east, it is said, – in Ukraine, the grain comes up late.

–––––

18th of May 1943.

–––No one knows when the war will end, no one knows whether the burdens we carry on our shoulders today will perhaps become even heavier, but one thing we know: Victory does not go to the one who possesses the most external aids.

–––––

67.



22nd of May 1943.

–––in a speech in Bremen on German labour problems, the German labour dictator, Gauleiter Saukel, announces today that even more labour will be mobilised in the European countries.

The European labour reserves meet their total organisation, says the Gauleiter: everywhere we want to get the utter most out of the available labour force.

–––––

24th of May 1943.

–––The front correspondent adds that while the Germans clearly possess air superiority in this section, the Russians are far superior in terms of manpower and material.

–––––

5th of June 1943.

–––in this somber moment, where skill has its great importance, but where faith and exemplary willingness to sacrifice make one omnipotent, there are too many who are only professionals and too few true believers.

–––––

6th of June 1943.

–––All the while, preparations are being eagerly made – but without haste – for a new Russian offensive, which is expected to be launched as soon as winter is once again about to leave its mark on the fronts in the east. It is also based on this expectation that people in Germany anticipate that there will be no German summer offensive this year. It is true, it is declared, that last year’s major operations did not begin until July, but one must not forget that this year both the Russian and German armies have had to fight even harder and bloodier winter battles, which have cost both sides heavy losses. In addition to this, it is emphasised that the German side is fully aware that it is of no use to occupy new territories in Russia through large-scale summer operations, if these nevertheless during the winter and in connection with a new Russian winter offensive, must be given away. Russia cannot, it is declared once again, be defeated through an occupation of territories, “other fighting methods must be used and they will come”, it is assured.

–––––

68.



8th of June 1943.

–––the focal point of the enormous air battle still seems to lie over the Taman Peninsula. A German war correspondent tells in “12 Uhr Blatt”(1) that the Red Air Force has here put its best machines into battle. The material is of Russian, American and British origin, but the pilots are exclusively Russian and, according to the German correspondent, they have gradually learned quite a lot. “Of course we also have to note losses”, he writes, “and many young German fighter pilots have not returned from the duels with the enemy machines in recent times.”

He further describes how the air is constantly full of aeroplanes. The dogfights are getting more and more bitter. Often a duel lasts up to 20 minutes or half an hour. “Not one flight ends without encounters from both sides.”

–––––

13th of June 1943.

–––Neutral observers in Berlin, however, find it difficult to disregard the continued vigorous activity of the Russian Air Force, and one is even inclined to think that the air offensive may perhaps be of a “preparative nature.”

–––––

69.


1) “Das 12 Uhr Blatt” or “The 12 Hours Newspaper” is a German daily that was printed in Berlin between 1919 and 1945.



18th of June 1943

The Russians relocated 70% of Ukraine’s population

In a few weeks, a population movement unprecedented in world history was carried out in the threatened parts of the country.

–––––

Up to 70% of the population of the Ukrainian districts threatened by German occupation in the autumn of 1941 were evacuated by the Russian government and taken to the new industrial centers in the Ural region.

There has often been talk of the gigantic human migration that took place from the threatened Russian areas, and from German side, conjectures have also been made from time to time about the scale of this action, which probably has no parallel in world history. The first exact figures are now contained in an overview that the German civil administration for the so-called “Reichskomisariat Ukraine”(1) has issued.

Not the least amazing thing about this whole fantastic undertaking is that, according to these official German calculations, it was carried out in as incredibly short span of time as a few weeks. There was no longer any fighting in the individual places, but when the Germans moved into a newly-conquered city, they found it to be already half or three-quarters depopulated. As a rule, only women, small children, the elderly, the sick, the crippled, and others who could not be used either as workers or soldiers remained.

–––––

23rd of June 1943.

On the 2nd anniversary of the beginning of the Russian war, the German newspapers contain no forecast as far as the future is concerned. Nothing is said about what lies ahead, it is emphasised that “the great decision can only consist in the destruction of the Soviet armies”. But they add that this has not yet happened, although in Germany they are “possessed by the idea of setting in the utmost of force against the Russians”.

–––––

70.


1) The “Reichskommissariat Ukraine” was an administrative region for much of German-occupied Ukraine incl. adjacent territories of Belarus and pre-war Poland. Between september 1941 and March 1944, the “Reichskommissariat Ukraine” was administered by the infamous Reichskommissar Erich Koch. The occupied territory was ruled as a colony with looting and an unheard of brutality against the civilian population. (Source: Wikipedia)



— finish



Price 10 crowns.



Postscript

Hitler finished!

Yes, Denmark’s communists had got it right: less than two years after the publication of “2 Years”, Hitler, as the coward he was, committed suicide in his bunker and the Red Banner of Victory was flying over Berlin.

In the introduction to “2 Years” we met Hitler as the Great World Conqueror. Let us finish by listening to the words that sounded from the Red Square in Moscow when the victory over fascism was won.

The radio address of Iosif Stalin on the 9th of May 1945.

Comrades! Compatriots!

The great day of victory over Germany has come. Fascist Germany, brought to its knees by the Red Army and the troops of our allies, recognized itself defeated and declared unconditional surrender.

On May 7, a preliminary protocol of surrender was signed in the city of Reims. On May 8, representatives of the German High Command, in the presence of representatives of the Supreme Command of the Allied Forces and the Supreme Command of the Soviet Troops, signed in Berlin the final act of surrender, the execution of which began at 24 hours on May 8.

Knowing the wolfish habit of German bosses who consider contracts and agreements to be just a piece of paper, we have no reason to take their word for it. However, this morning, the German troops, in pursuance of the act of surrender, began to lay down their weapons en masse and surrender to our troops. This is no longer an empty piece of paper. This is the actual surrender of the German armed forces. However, one group of German troops in the area of Czechoslovakia is still evading surrender. But I hope that the Red Army will be able to bring it to its senses.

Now we can state with full justification that the historic day of the final defeat of Germany has come, the day of the great victory of our people over German imperialism.

The great sacrifices we made in the name of freedom and independence of our Motherland, the incalculable hardships and sufferings endured by our people during the war, the hard work in the rear and at the front, given on the altar of the Fatherland, were not in vain and were crowned with a complete victory over the enemy. The age-old struggle of the Slavic peoples for their existence and their independence ended in victory over the German invaders and German tyranny.

From now on, the great banner of freedom of peoples and peace between peoples will fly over Europe.

Three years ago, Hitler publicly declared that his goals included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the separation of the Caucasus, Ukraine, Belorussia, the Baltic region and other regions from it, he bluntly stated: “We will destroy Russia so that it can never rise again.” That was three years ago. But Hitler’s crazy ideas were not destined to come true – the course of the war scattered them to dust. In fact, it turned out to be the exact opposite of what the Nazis were raving about. Germany is completely defeated. The German troops are capitulating. The Soviet Union is triumphant, although it does not intend to dismember or destroy Germany.

Comrades! The Great Patriotic War ended with our complete victory. The period of war in Europe is over, the period of peaceful development has begun.

Happy victory to you, my dear compatriots!

Glory to our heroic Red Army, which defended the independence of our Motherland and won victory over the enemy!

Glory to our great people, the victorious people!

Eternal glory to the heroes who fell in battles with the enemy and gave their lives for the freedom and happiness of our people!

— Printed in “Pravda”. 10th of May 1945