When Rouble Was Golden – Russia that we lost in the ashes of WWI and the coup d’etats of 1914-1917

On the 6th of March (21st of February by the old style) 1917, the colour “bread” revolution was started, which heralded a great disaster, spanning a century…

In the years before Russia got drawn into WWI, it was displaying fabulous growth, both socially and economically. WWI, also known as the “War of 4 cousins” – as all heads of the warring states were blood relatives – was a disaster for Russia, and weakened it sufficiently to facilitate the second – internal – disaster of 1917, which all but destroyed it.

One of the contemporary writers said that “Pity that we have Nikolai the Second, and not the second Nikolai”, referring to the strong in the will Nikolai I. Nikolai II, while being praised by the Western (British) powers, delivered Russia on a platter, and then was dumped by the Brits to be executed by the followers of their agent – Lenin. There was only one other Russian ruler, who was praised as highly by the West – Yeltsin, who caused destruction of Russia almost to the point of no return in the “Wild 90s”.

In November 1914 the Austrian Foreign Minister Leopold Berchtold wrote: “Our main goal in this war lies in the long-term weakening of Russia.” Oh, how well they succeeded!

What did Russia lose? Marking the coming 100th anniversary of the two coup d’etats of 1917, Russian weekly “Argumenty and Fakty” publishes in 2016 a series of articles – “When Rouble was Golden” – showing some key points of Russian life before WWI. Here I want to present the translation of the series.

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Publication of 03.02.2016, regarding the foundations of the Russian economics.


Harvest. Urals, 1907

What was the country, that lost forever? What was the foundation of its economy, when oil was not the main article of Russian exports nor the main source of state revenues? Argumenty i Fakty got at its disposal a unique booklet, first published in 1958 in New York City in 8 thousand copies. Edited by B. Brazol, it compiled statistics showing that over the last 15-20 years before the First World War, Russia made giant steps forward both in the economy, and in the development of the social and educational systems.

“AiF” starts a series of articles in which we will talk about how our country developed in the early twentieth century. In this edition we will focus on the golden rouble and gold reserves, revenues and expenditures of the state budget, taxes and savings.

A strong currency

During the reign of Emperor Nicholai II, by the law of 1896 Russia introduced the gold currency standard. That is, the issuance from each rouble was tied to the amount of gold reserves of the country. In case of emergency, the state Bank was granted the right to issue 300 million paper roubles not backed by gold, but it never used this right. The rouble was equal to 0,7 grammes of pure gold. As for the paper money (banknotes) and gold coins — they were equal in value. The content of the precious metal in the golden rouble surpassed the gold content of the coins of other countries. The rouble as the currency enjoyed a steady demand both inside the country and in the world.

In that period the financial system of all developed countries were also based on the gold standard — the amount of money had to match the size of the gold reserves of a country. Today the exchange rate is determined by its correlation with the dollar, while gold is a regular market commodity.

Positive budget

Russia of that time built its policy not only on a balanced budget, but also on the principle of substantial accumulation of gold reserves. Despite this and without any increase in the tax burden, the state income steadily grew from 1,410 billion in 1897, whereas the government spending remained more or less on the same level. Over the last ten years before the First World War, the excess of government revenue over expenditure amounted to 2.4 billion roubles. This amount is all the more impressive if one remembers that during the reign of Nicholai II, railway tariffs were lowered, redemption payments for land ceded to serfs from their former landlords in 1861 were abolished, as well as some taxes were cancelled.

Infographics: Budget of the Russian Empire by year

Legend: Blue sack – income; gold coins – expenditures; in the circle – income over expenditure surplus; in 1912: * in squares – converted to 2016-roubles.
млн – million; млрд – billion; трлн – trillion

Low taxes

Total sum of taxes per capita in Russia was more than twice lower than in Austria, France and Germany, while compared with England it was four times lower.

Infographics: Total sum of taxes per capita in roubles

Legend: in the circle – roubles; white square* – converted into 2016 roubles (20700p).

The welfare of the citizens

In 1914, the State Savings Bank had deposits for 2,236 billion roubles. From 1904 accumulation of the Russians on savings accounts was steadily increasing — with the exception of 1905, which coincided with the Russian-Japanese war and the revolution.

Infographics: Saving deposits by the population

Legend: млн – million; млрд – billion; трлн – trillion
White square* – converted into 2016 roubles
1 golden rouble was equal to 0.774235 gramme of pure gold, ad at today’s (2016) Central Bank rate would have cost about 2282 roubles.

Bread and Tariffs

The Treasury of the Russian Empire is the dream of any Finance Ministry: minimum os social spending, — said Sergei Bespalov, historian, senior researcher of the Ranepa.

— Russia in the XIX-XX centuries was more fortunate than in the beginning of the XXI century — it’s the Ministry of Finance was successively headed by several talented administrators. First N. Bunge, then I. Vyshnegradsky, and finally, S. Witte. They were engaged in the replenishment of gold reserves, while Vyshnegradsky began preparation of the currency reform, which was conducted by Witte. The reform not only made the rouble convertible, what’s more important, it was valued internally. In addition, Witte cleverly borrowed from foreign banks at low interest rates. Re-borrowing, he managed to reduce payments on previous debts.

Vyshnegradsky is credited with the phrase: “we’ll eat less, but will export”, which refers to the export of bread. he could have well said it, because the export of grain for the Russian Empire was the most important source of income for the Treasury — almost like oil today. And the volume of grain exports had to be maintained at a high level. Exporters of bread were mostly not the peasants, but the large landlords farm — the agricultural firms of today.

The flourishing economy of Russia in the early XX century was carefully prepared. A major achievement of the Ministry of Finance, besides the gold rouble, can and should be considered the Customs Tariff of 1891 which was developed by Dmitri Mendeleev. There is a legend that it was the Customs Tariff, and not the periodic system of chemical elements, that he considered to be his main achievement. Mendeleev was a close ally to Sergei Witte. Customs Tariff helped to protect the market from cheap imports and to develop domestic industry. At the same time, high tariffs led to a rise in import prices, resulting in the Tariff having many opponents.

A major source of revenue waere taxes. It is believed that they were lower than in other countries. However, the standard of living in Russia in the early XX century was also lower. With this in mind, it turns out that the tax burden was comparable to other countries — there no difference “in magnitudes”. In addition to taxes, the Treasury was receiving “redemption payments” — the peasants up to 1905 paid for the purchase of the land from the landlords during the abolition of serfdom.

Government spendings were by a degree smaller — there were almost no social expenditures, pensions were paid to a narrow group of the population. But when they were paid… The whole of his numerous family, including the future leader of the proletariat, lived for many years on the pension, received after death of the Director of public schools in Simbirsk province, Ilya Ulyanov (Lenin’s father).




Publication of 15.02.2016, regarding the development of the industry.


The view from Dorogomilovo to partnership calico factory of Albert Hubner in Moscow.

In this edition we will focus on the development of industry and entrepreneurship, the construction of railways and the already establishing social legislation.

Industrial growth

In the period between 1890 and 1913, the productivity of Russian industry by grew four times. Its revenues not only nearly equalled to the income from agriculture — the produce covered almost 4/5 of the domestic demand for manufactured products.


Upper left corner: value, produced by the Russian factories in billions of roubles
Upper right corner: Construction of agricultural machinery in million of roubles.
Table with comparison of production between 1895 and 1914, top to bottom, in [млн – million / тыс. – thousand] of tonnes: coal, oil, gold, copper, magnesium, cast iron, iron/steel, salt, sugar.

Protection of workers

Industrial development caused a rapid increase in the number of factory workers. It should be noted that the laws relating to the protection of labour, were first published in Russia in the XVIII century, during the reign of Empress Catherine II. In the reign of Nicholai II were issued the laws to ensure the safety of workers in the mining industry, on the railways and in factories, constituting particular danger to life and health, such as gunpowder factories.

Child labour under 12 years of age was prohibited, minors and women were not allowed to work in night shift. Fines were not to exceed one third of the salary. In 1912 there was adopted the law on insurance payments due to illness, for child birth and accidents. Workers unions were recognized by law, strikes were allowed.

Development of entrepreneurship

During the 4 years before the First World War, the number of newly founded joint stock companies increased more than 2-fold, and the capital invested in them — by almost 4 times.

The number of new stock companies and their capital in million of roubles:

The construction of railways

Railway length in thousand of kilometres, 1917 and 2016.

The Great Siberian Railway was the longest in the world.

58,2 thousand km of railways were built in 1880-1917 (1600km per year in average).

In 1916, that is in the midst of the war, Russia built more than 2 thousand km of railways, which connected the Arctic ocean (port Romanovsk, now Murmansk) with the centre of Russia.

On the eve of the war, more than 4/5th of the payments on external and domestic debt were secured by revenues that the state received from the operation of railways.

Russian railway for passengers was the cheapest and most comfortable in the world. Train rides through the Siberian railway.

The price of the growth

Russia in the early XX century made a sharp spurt in industrial development, but became – as is in our time – directly or indirectly owned by foreigners, says Vasily Simchera, former Director of the Institute of State Statistics Committee, the author of the work “Development of Economy of Russia over 100 years.”

Cast iron, steel, gold

— In the early twentieth century, Russia played a prominent role in the extractive industries, production of iron, steel, gold, furs, building materials, military equipment, machine building. According to the total volume of technical and economic development, the country was on the 5th place in the world (after the USA, Germany, UK and France). The volume of national property (60,3 billion gold rubles, while the United States had 397,4 billion in terms of gold roubles) also at the 5th place (in the domestic Russian market, the gold rouble was equal to paper rouble, while on the foreign market it cost 1.85 U.S. dollar to 1 rouble, though the paper rouble was not convertible. — Ed.). At the same time, judging by the production of iron, steel, metal, copper, gold, platinum, locomotives, wagons, grain, sugar and other 27 key indicators, Russia is among the top three countries in the world. Today (2016) it is not included even in the top ten.

Industrial production grew due to the measures of the tsarist government — the domestic manufacturers were provided with incentives, loans and allowances. Metallurgical factories were generously paid for railroad tracks by the Treasury. For the first 13 years of the XX century the volume of production in the country almost doubled, while foreign trade rose by 2,5 times. On the advice of Witte and Mendeleev, Nicholai II imposed significant restrictions on the export of crude oil in 1896 – to secure the development of domestic refining and engineering. Major industrial regions were formed: Central, Urals, St. Petersburg, Volga. Only during the years of Russia’s participation in World War I (1914-1917), the indicators of industrial production decreased, although individual industries (military equipment, food, import) on the contrary showed rapid development.

And whose is the money?

The flip side of acceleration was the increase of Russia’s dependence on foreign (mainly French, Belgian and British) capital. Witte and Stolypin strutted, but not all was good — the economy lacked money. The construction of railways — Caucasian, Chinese — underwent on foreign loans. Even the money of the Russian Industrialists were borrowed. Foreigners were especially eager to invest in the primary sector. Thus, the Donbass and Baku oilfields in fact belonged to the British. In general the foreigners owned at least 70% of its assets in commodities in the heavy and, to a lesser extent, in light industries. This dependency was the reason for the involvement of Russia into a world war it did not need, and the ensuing collapse of the Empire.




Publication of the 17.02.2016, second part regarding the economic foundations of Russia.

Recently, the United States acknowledged that this year (2016) Russia will be able to come out on top in the world in grain export. In the beginning of XX century our country has also fed the world with its bread.

Bread with butter

Agrarian reform of the early XX century wasleft unfinished, but its interim results gave birth to another 40 million Russians, believes Alexander Bessolitsyn, Professor at the Department of Economics, Ranepa:

– 1891-1892 was the last hungry years in the Russian Empire (later the famine only happened after 1917: in 1921-1922 in the Volga region, and in 1932-1933 as a result of collectivization). Harvests increased, also grew the export of grain from Russia. The government stimulated it through the banks – for example, the Russian-Asian, which invested the mostly borrowed from the Western bankers money into the export, built elevators, including offshore in the Azov and Black seas, tankers. There arose grain exchanges, bread was sold to the dealers both by the landlords and the peasants.

The Russian food exports of the beginning of the XX century is called by some experts “a hungry export”, while others say that the excess was exported. Both assessments are unfair. In 1913 the population of the Russian Empire had reached 166 million: in 15 years it grew by 40 million people – mostly rural residents. Per capita consumption of bread in this time was only a little below the norm of 500kg per year, and amounted to 459kg. But such a gap may not lead to starvation. Rapid population growth confirms that the life of the peasants was relatively stable.

Egypt, Turkey and other countries in the Middle East and the Northern Mediterranean were those countries that purchased Russian grain the most. Although it is believed that Russia fed Europe, our grain was mainly shipped to the colonies. It was the cheapest (a pound of rye in 1913 cost 91 kopecks) and was considered low quality – too diverse and clogged. Europeans looked upon it with disdain. Germany bought Russian rye for processing and then sold the flour back to us.

Eggs and butter were more valued – two of the main Russian export product of the period. We started to produce butter only in the 80-ies of the XIX century, but already in the beginning of XX century it was considered the best in the world. Belgium, France, Germany and the UK were eager to buy it.

Agriculture was considered by the Head of the Government, Sergei Witte, as a source of funds for industrialization. Later on the Bolsheviks treated it in the same way. Still, the Imperial government saw agriculture not only a cash cow. Witte announced a program of replacement of grain export by flour: Russia, being one of the leaders in the export of grain, controlled only 3% of the world flour market.

But landlords and peasants, together with the foreign bankers, did not support the idea – it was easier to ship out the grain, while the foreigners did not want to let Russia to a more lucrative market. This problem is not resolved till this day.

Agrarian reform, called after Stolypin (from translator: the fact that there were made 11 assassination attempts over 5 years on the Interior Minister Petr Stolypin speaks volumes! He was ultimately murdered on the 14th of September 1911 in Kiev.), was also developed in the period of the Witte government. It remained unfinished. But the interim results were impressive. The main rise of agricultural cooperation, resettlement of peasants to Siberia and its development.

The government stimulated the development of the village, but the Russian agricultural sector, even in this period of rapid development, all the time suffered from lack of money. Just as the rest of the Russian economy of the early XX century.

Crops

In 1913 the harvest of the main cereals in Russia was one-third higher than in Argentina, Canada and the USA combined. Our country was the main bread supplier for the Western Europe.

In the 20 years preceding the First World War, the harvest of bread almost doubled.


Infographics block by block:
Upper left: Average grain productivity of a “tenth” (1,09 hectare), in hundredweigt; Area of planting of sugar beets, in thousand of hectares.
Upper right: Yearly harvest of the cereals, in million tonnes. Note! In 2015 Russian Federation harvested 104.3 million tonnes grain – not much more than in 1913. In 2012 the harvest was even lower than in the pre-revolutionary Russia, when mainly horses were used in agriculture – 70.9 million tonnes.
Middle: Harvest of cotton, in thousand of tonnes. In 1913 cotton harvest fully covered the needs of the Russian textile industry.
Bottom: Harvest of flax, in thousand of tonnes. Comparing France, Autro-Hungary and Russia. Russia produces 80% of the world flax harvest before WWI.

Stolypin’s agrarian reform (started in 1906)

The peasant was allowed to leave the community and become individual and hereditary owner of the land. In 1913 already 2 million families have received plots. By the beginning of the First World War, 13% of communal land passed into individual ownership.


Infographics: Peasants owned in million of hectares.

The State Farming Bank was buying out landlord estates and giving them to the peasants on favourable lending (up to 90% of the land cost) low-interest terms (4.5%). As a result, in 1917 the peasants owned up to 90% of arable land in the European part of Russia and 100% in the Asian part.

Peasants were moved from European part of Russia, where there was not enough land, in Siberia. Migrants were exempt from taxes, given land (15 hectares for the head of the family, plus 45 hectares for the whole of the family), provided with an allowance (200 RUB) and transported with the whole economy at state expense. In Siberia the settlers were supplied with agricultural machinery.

One hundred years passed, and now in 2016, the Russians are again given free land in the Far East, but only 1(!) hectares per person. Feel the difference…


Infographics: Animal husbandry.
Cattle, in million heads. Note! In 2014 there was only 19,2 million heads of cattle in Russian Federation!
Horses, in million heads.
Export of eggs: 1908 2.59 billion for 54.8 million roubles, and in 1909 2.84 billion for 62.2 million roubles. Russia stood for 50% of world production of eggs.




Publication of 24.02.2016, regarding the state of education.


Nikolai Bgdanov-Belskij. “Schoolgirls”. 1901.

Russia has enough universities, but it “is in need of opening of higher schools, and even more so, in secondary technical and agricultural schools.” This phrase belongs to Emperor Nicholai II. 100 years passed, and our country again lacks engineers and farmers.

In early 1913, the total budget of national education in Russia reached colossal figures by those time – 0.5 billion roubles in gold (1,14 trillion 2016-roubles).

In 2016, the Russian Federation Federal budget spendings on education amounted to 578 billion roubles.


Infographics: Budget of the Ministry of Education above; and the number of literate conscripts below.

Elementary school

Zemskaya (rural) schools of the Ministry of National Education (MNE)

Free education.
Duration: 3-4 years
Subjects: basic – the Law of God, reading, writing, arithmetic. In schools with two classes – also history, geography, natural sciences, Church singing and drawing.


Infographics: 1914: 123.7 thousand schools, giving education to 30% of all children between 8 and 11.

Parochial schools

Duration: 3-4 years
Subjects: basic – the Law of God, Church singing, reading, writing, arithmetic. In schools with two classes – also history.

City schools

Duration: 4 years
Subjects: the Law of God, reading, writing, arithmetic, geometry, sketching, drawing, history, geography, natural history, physics, gymnastics.

High schools

Classical gymnasium
* Men’s
Duration: 8 years
Subjects: the Law of God, Russian and Church Slavonic languages, ancient and foreign languages, philosophy, mathematics, physics, history, geography, science, art, jurisprudence.

* Women’s
Duration: 7 years
Subjects: The same as above, but with a simplified program, plus crafts and pedagogy.

* Real school (with natural-mathematical bias)

Duration: 7 years
Subjects: the Law of God, Russian and foreign languages, geography, history, mathematics, physics, natural history, drawing, sketching, calligraphy, jurisprudence.

In 2014-2015 there were 950 high schools in the Russian Federation. Authorities are trying to reduce their number, closing inefficient ones.


Infographics: Number of High schools on 1913-1914. Total: 63.
The list from top to bottom:
Engineering-industrial: 15
Universities: 10
Military/Navy: 8
Church: 6
Agricultural: 6
Jurisprudence: 4
Pedagogical: 4
Veterinarian: 4
Eastern Studies: 3
Medical: 2
Art: 1

The lessons of the century

The reform of public education in Russia of the beginning of XX century remained unfinished, but the pre-revolutionary system made possible the scientific and technological breakthroughs of the Soviet era, says historian and teacher Yevgenij Spitsyn.

Hordes of illiterates

– The development of the education system in the Russian Empire was consistent and continued on the basis of the democratic principles of classlessness and universality, established in 1803. However, the law on universal primary education did not come into force – on June 6, 1912 it was ultimately dismissed by the Council of State.

It is generally believed (including in the Soviet historical science) that the main contribution to the increase in the number of educated people in Russia was made by “Zemstvo” (country schools), but it is not so. The parochial schools, which constantly created be the statesman in the reign of Alexander III, the chief Procurator of the Holy Synod K. Pobedonostsev, helped more in the education. It is customary to call parochial schools for the “hotbeds of obscurantism”. Pity. The children learned not only to read, but the main skill – the ability to learn, helping them further in the gymnasium or real school. Furthermore the population of Russia has grown very rapidly in this period, so a new “hordes” of illiterate people came to replace the educated ones, thus the number of schools had to increase rapidly and by much.

When mathematicians knew Latin

Russia lagged behind. By 1914, on 1000 people of the population, students accounted for: in Russia – 59, Austria – 143, UK – 152 in Germany – 175, USA – 213, France – 148, in Japan – 146. However, the primary school attendance of children of 8-11 years by 1914 constituted 30.1% in the whole Empire, including in the cities – 46.6%, and in rural areas – 28.3% (see: Russia in 1913. Statistical and documentary Handbook. SPb, 1995). And according to some sources, in the central provinces and in the big cities the education of children of school age was universal.

The Empire’s scholl helped to educate scientists, engineers and designers, who then, in Soviet times, made many discoveries and inventions. The gymnasium included study of Greek and Latin, gave a strong mathematical training. Mathematician could read in Latin, and a philology scholar possessed the knowledge on the natural Sciences. The classical school provided the opportunity to give a really higher education people with a broad outlook, who posessed three ancient as wells as 2-3 modern languages, were familiar with the scientific picture of the world.

Higher education evolved as intensely as secondary and primary – by 1914, there were 63 state-owned, public, private and departmental educational institutions of the higher school, where there studied 123532 students (of those, 71379 in public universities). Self-financed and state-financed students were approximately equal in numbers.

The aim of the pre-revolutionary education was not the economics, but the development of the harmonious human personality. But, as happens in such cases, the rapid economic development of the country became a “by-product” of the creation of schools, colleges and universities.

Lugansk – The Last Cry For Help

This is a lightning translation of the following post on Kont: https://cont.ws/@klimova/521800

Here are the news of the petition signing at Vesti.Ru

While we are watching the developments in Syria, the Ukraine has seen a lot of changes of which I would like to tell.

It turns out that more than 153.000 residents of the Lugansk People’s Republic, signed a petition, where they appeal to the leaders of Russia, USA and Germany, Vladimir Putin, Donald Trump and Angela Merkel with the request to prevent the aggravation of the situation in Donbass.

I will remind that earlier the presidents of the people’s councils of the Lugansk People’s Republic and the Donetsk People’s Republic, Vladimir Degtyarenko and Denis Pushilin, addressed the presidents of Russia and the USA, as well as the Chancellor of Germany, with a request to “stop Poroshenko” so as to end fighting in Donbass and the blockade of the region. Head of The Lugansk People’s Republic, Igor Carpenter, stated that LPR and DPR will in the near future start collecting signatures under this appeal.

And here is the result. To be honest, I’m incredibly curious as to how Europe will react to this “cry for help” from Lugansk? After all, everything spearheads to Poroshenko being dumped. Judge for yourself, a couple of days ago Merkel admitted that the Ukrainian crisis has lasted too long and actions need to be taken. Other prominent political actors of the EU have started to notice that Kiev did not follow the obligations, assigned to them by the Minsk agreements.

We shall see what the consequences of such changes will be, but already today it is possible to speak with confidence about drastic changes in such matters as the war in Ukraine.

“Russians Are Coming!”: Restoration of the Dutch Kingdom. Year 1813.

This is my translation of the article by Alexander Mashkin about the events that have sadly become either forgotten or outright erased from the pages of history…

1Nemo1KPB8UjQjrURqn6V7Mscungx44XS2Please note that translating a documentary film or an article takes a lot of time and emotional effort. I am doing it on a voluntary basis, but if someone feels like supporting my work, a Bitcoin donation to the following address is appreciated: 1Nemo1KPB8UjQjrURqn6V7Mscungx44XS2


Since the end of XVIII century the country now known as the Kingdom of Netherlands, was in a state of economic decline and political chaos. The reason for that was that under the influence of the events in North America, part of the Dutch populace, which for some reason called themselves for “patriots”, with maniacal stubbornness pushed the then stadhouder of the Seven United Provinces, Willem (Wilhelm) V, Prince of Orange-Nassau (1748-1806), to the recognition of Republic of G. Washington – the breakaway part of the possessions of the British Empire. When it happened, and, indignant at such perfidy, London declared war on Holland, the aforementioned “brave” fled in a panic, leaving their government on the own to suffer the most severe consequences of this ill-considered foreign policy steps. Not having been satisfied with “the progress”, the local “fighters for the freedom of the people”, declaring the need for “protecting municipal rights in several cities”, started an outright armed revolt in 1785. After the suppression of which by the Prussian Royal troops, which came to the aid of the legitimate government, those “patriots”, cursing the winners for their supposedly “living in our house with outright robbery”, and stadhouder in particular, for the cruelty (“everyone had to wear in public the orange cockade”), 40000 people withdrew to neighbouring Brabant.

These internal differences led to the fact that in 1795 the Netherlands were occupied – almost without resistance – by the French revolutionary divisions, which in January of that year forced Willem V to flee to England, and proclaimed the so-called “Batavian Republic”, led by their protege, “the great pensionarium” Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck. Despite the fact that the invaders called the “state” in honour of the Germanic tribe of Batavs, which lived South of the Rhine since the times of the Roman colonization of the region and is traditionally considered the ancestor of all Netherlanders, it lasted only until 1806. After that it was included by the invaders into the “Kingdom of Holland”, subordinated to the sibling of Napoleon the First, Louis Bonaparte, while after 1810, because of his quarrel with his “sovereign” relative, it turned into an integral part of the newly created pan-European Empire with its centre in Paris.

More than fifteen years of suffering of the locals under the thumb of foreign strangers and their native adherents, turned into “a byword”. Well known is also the fact that these things ended with the landing of the heir of the exiled at the time stadhouder Willem V – Willem VI of Orange – on the Dutch shore, near Scheveningen on the 30th of November 1813, meeting him there as a national hero, and the immediate proclamation of him as the Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands. Thus far, however, few know that the uprising of Dutch national identity could well have remained on the level of wishful thinking, if not for the heroic deeds of soldiers, sailors and officers of the Russian Army and Navy. They came on the orders of Emperor Alexander the First, to smash Napoleon and his allies on the territory of Europe itself…

The total number of troops and their tactics

Having destroyed the enemy in the vastness between Moscow and the Beresina river, that is – at home, Russian troops entered the mainland countries. It’s clear that their plan also included the Netherlands, located on the North Sea coast, liberation of which from the Napoleonic yoke began in the late autumn of 1813.

To accomplish this more than important mission the vanguard detachment of three so-called “flying corps” in a total number of 3500 people was formed in the army of Wintzingerode, commanded by the future chief of the political police of the Russian Empire, General Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf. It consisted of a) the Tula infantry regiment (700 men), b) Jaeger battalion of the Second regiment (400), c) battalion of the Pavlograd hussar regiment (800), d) five Cossack regiments (1,600 people) of the adjutant of Alexander I, the Creator of the network of agents in Paris, Colonel Count Chernyshev, e) the battery of horse-pulled artillery.

Fortunately, archival materials preserved to our days almost the complete picture of the said military units, which, because of its particular value, we allow ourselves to reproduce here almost in full:

“Outside of the brigades: Balabin’s 2nd Cossack regiment of the Don Army (5 hundreds); Commander — Colonel of ataman regiment of the Don Army, Stepan Fedorovich Balabin, the 2nd.
The 1st brigade: Commander of the Cossack Don Army named on behalf of his regiment, Major-General Maxim Grigorievich Vlasov, the 3rd; 3rd Cossack regiment of the Vlasov’s Don Cossack Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Major-General Maxim Grigorievich Vlasov ,the 3rd.
Zhirov’s Cossack regiment of the Don Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Colonel Ivan Ivanovich Zhirov.
The 2nd brigade: Sysoev’s 3rd Cossack regiment of of the Don Cossack Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Major-General Vasily Alekseevich Sysoev the 3rd, not with the regiment due to illness since January 1813.
Dyachkin’s Cossack regiment of the Don Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Major-General Gregory Andreevich Dyachkin, not with the regiment due to illness since January, 1813.
Flying squad (consisting of three regiments of the Separate Cossack brigade) of Colonel Naryshkin. Commander – Colonel of the Life Guards of the hussar regiment, Lev Alexandrovich Naryshkin.
Grekov’s 9th Cossack regiment of the Don Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Colonel Alexey Antonovich Grekov, the 9th.
Barabanschikov’s 2nd Cossack regiment of the Don Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Colonel Fedor Akimovich Barabanshikov, the 2nd.
Lashilin’s 1st Cossack regiment of the Don Army (5 hundreds). Commander — Colonel Joseph Grigorievich Lemelin, the 1st”.

Alexander von Benckendorff
Count Alexander Khristoforovich Benkendorff

While performing the task of strengthening the anti-French resistance in the Netherlands, as well as protecting the adjacent region of Germany against a possible enemy invasion, Benkendorff’s detachment marched on November the 2nd 1813 towards the river IJssel (Assel; Jessel). He ordered his first column to attack the city of Zwolle (called “Zvol” in Russian reports of the time), and the second (Central, where Benkendorff was himself) to move to Bentham and Deventer, while the third was to attempt to master Disbursem. Of course, under each of these settlements “a decisive battle” took place.

Under the Walls of Deventer

Only having begun the march towards the designated settlement located on the banks of IJssel, where in his time Erasmus of Rotterdam was studying, the Cossacks continuously attacked the enemy. Moreover, in addition to the destruction of manpower of the opponent, they were also spreading among the local residents rumours that “people from the East came to give you freedom!”. The Don warriors were also performing active scouting at that time, in which it was found that the garrison of Deventer consists of 3000 French, while the Fortress is well fortified and supplied with provisions and forage, and has a significant numbers of mural artillery.

Realizing that this fortified edifice cannot be conquered on the go, the Russian command took to certain tricks. So, the future hero of the campaign for the liberation of the Netherlands, commander of the Bashkir regiment, major Prince Gagarin – awarded the Order of St. George IV degree for his successful cavalry raids against enemy positions – was ordered, after crossing the river, to simulate from the opposite shore a furious attack on the only bridge leading to the fortress, as if trying to capture it. At the same time Benkendorff with the main forces was to try to take the city from the unfortified side.

…At 3am Russian small forces rushed to occupy the outskirts, opposite to the local river port. But the surprise factor for them was by that time completely lost, an thus the soldiers, losing a few men killed and wounded, quietly retreated into the darkness. Leaving patrol group of Colonel Balabin to watch Deventer…

Battle at Zwolle

Refusing to accept a temporary setback in Deventer as a defeat, and not losing presence of spirit, Russian troops continued to move into the Netherlands, with its two columns taking a course on Zwolle.

It should be noted that by the end of 1812 this settlement represented a poorly fortified outpost, the garrison of which consisted of two or three hundred cavalry units. Knowing this, and seeking to avoid needless casualties among the civilian population, Benkendorff ordered several Cossacks from Colonel Naryshkin’s division to take all measures within their power to lure the enemy outside the walls of the fortress. “This trick, – said one of the participants of those events – was successful: the French, after a sortie, were quite bodily overrun. Our people entered Zwolle, mingling with the enemy, more than half of whom were captured”.

Taking the aforesaid city, the Russians were finally able to report “up” that the river IJssel is “ultimately and irrevocably passed”. In addition, there occurred two important events, the history of which we see as prudent to recall in particular.

It was in the small town of Zwolle that the Russian commander was awaited by the Dutch General, Count Baltazar Bogislav van der Platten (1766 – 1829, translator: “Bogislav” is a Russian name, meaning “Gods-praising”). Having long served in Russia as a military engineer, he at home acquired the post of Governor-General. Van der Platten, according to A. H. Benkendorff, “embraced all of my plans for the Netherlands, told me accurate information about the enemy forces and the sentiments of his people”.

On the other hand, at the same time, also Baron Cornelius Rudolph Theodor Kraayenhof (1758-1840) took contact. After finishing the High school in Hardewijk, possessing a deep knowledge in the field of humanitarian, natural and technical Sciences, being the author of the monumental work “Hydrographic and topographic descriptions of the Netherlands”, this military figure and scientist, being a steadfast supporter of national traditions and monarchist, and one of the main initiators of the enthronement of King of the Netherlands Willem I. After the Russians came to Holland, he served them, as the Russian saying goes, not out of fear but for conscience. We read in one of the contemporary books: “He, like no one else, knew his country. Napoleon promoted him to the rank of Brigadier General (Engineer-General) and appointed as inspector of fortifications in the Netherlands. A person with such a complete knowledge about the Netherlands, a country of canals, locks and dams, in the opinion of Napoleon, was to serve him alone, but Kraayenhof remained loyal to the “Orange” party, who headed the Patriotic forces of the Netherlands by the end of the French occupation. Thanks to General Kraayenhof, Russian squad in the Netherlands did not experience difficulties, acquiring the necessary information about the hydraulic structures, roads and fortresses”.

Corneluis von Krayenhoff
Baron Cornelius Rudolph Theodore Kraayenhof

…”The local residents welcomed the Russian Cossacks as liberators, offering them fruit and drinks; popular uprisings started in the towns closer to Zwolle, resulting in the attacks on the French customs officers and gendarmes. The main forces of Napoleon’s Marshal MacDonald became entangled”…

To Amsterdam!

In preparation for the march on Deventer and Zwolle, General Benkendorff, trying to figure out the general mood of the residents of Amsterdam and to conduct a reconnaissance, sent there one of the Dutch “Orange” colonels from his entourage, who was in Russian service. The operation was successful, and upon return, the messenger reported to the authorities that both the population of the said commercial and industrial centre, and Napoleon’s commandant Baron K. Kraayenhof, were eagerly anticipating the army of the Emperor Alexander I.

So as to use the fortuitous moment to the maximum and force the Dutch to speak out against their oppressors, it was decided to send to the walls of this main city a force of 200 – 250 Cossacks, led by the native Lancastershire (England) cavalry officer, major of the Pavlograd hussar regiment, Marclay. Notably, in the instruction towards this end, he was ordered “to proceed to the destination of the operation without stopping, avoiding encounters with the enemy and not caring about his communication lines or about the retreat”. Having marched at high tempo to the prescribed destination, “this brave and prudent officer was able to conceal his movement from the enemy, avoiding all roads, and entered Amsterdam on the 14th of November. The people, inspired by the view of the Cossacks arrested the remaining in the city French, and raised the banner of independence”. In the meantime, the enemy doubled their vigilance, having managed to retreat to Utrecht (1800 soldiers and officers of the division of General Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor (1770-1849)) and concentrate its main forces in the reasonably well-fortified fortresses “Muiden and Helwig near Amsterdam, almost at its gates” (900 men with 26 guns).

Realizing that in this situation he has no chance for a head-on attack on Amsterdam, Benkendorf, disobeying the orders of a superior over him General Wintzingerode regarding “not entering Holland due to insufficient troops”, decided to act in a flanking maneuver. Leaving the already familiar to us Colonel Balabin in Zwolle “to watch over Deventer”, he himself, with a small detachment of infantry, moved during the night from 21 to 22 Nov 1813 to Hardewicke (Harderwijk), where he was to continue his raid in the vessels provided by loyal-minded Dutch people. Laying “six miles of awful road” behind, and reaching the designated point that same night, Benkendorf, to his surprise, “found in Harderwijk port only a small number of vessels”. Not wishing, however, to abandon the idea of freeing Amsterdam by themselves, Aleksandr Khristoforovich, sending another part of the soldiers of his already small detachment “as reinforcements to General Zhevakhov”, loaded the other 600 people into available boats. This makeshift flotilla raised their sails at 23.00 on the 22nd of November and, praying to the Lord about the favourable wind, moved over the ice-floe covered Amsterdam Bay of Zuider-ze (Zuger see, the modern IJsselmeer). The fortune clearly favoured the Russians back then, because they quietly slipped under the noses of the located nearby in the Texel French squadron, whose commander was a fanatical napoleonist, a Dutchman by birth, Charles – Henri Verhuell (real name – Wernher) (1764 – 1845). “At sunrise on November 23 [they] saw the bell towers of Amsterdam and at 8 in the morning entered the port”.

The residents met this handful of brave men with indescribable enthusiasm. Residents were everywhere singing a new anthem, which “suddenly” appeared, carrying these these words:

“Holland is free!
The allies advance on Utrecht.
The French fleeing in all directions.
The sea is open,
The trade is reviving!
The strife is over,
Past forgotten
And is forgiven.
Nobility returns to the government.
The government asks the Prince to Arrive at the Palace.
All praise God.
Back are the good old days!”

The local chief, who openly switched to the Russian side, was horrified upon learning that his liberation from the French came by a squad of less than a thousand bayonets, knowing full well that Napoleon would be trying to retake the city under his control. To strengthen their prestige, the winners decided to announce to the public that 6000 Russians entered Amsterdam, and issued an appeal to the people to take up arms, form the National Guard and, in the case of the attempts by the enemy to change the situation in their favour, “for them all to die in the battle for the beloved Fatherland.”

…The Russian divisions that distinguished themselves the most, were soon presented high awards from the Dutch Crown. “Amsterdam and Breda” — such inscription was engraved on the golden chord, awarded to Benkendorf by the first king of the Netherlands. Tula infantry regiment received from Willem I two memorial silver trumpets with the inscription “Amsterdam 24 Novembre 1813” (presented on June the 5th 1815), and the 2nd Jaeger regiment – two memorial Royal silver trumpets “For the entry of the 2nd Jaeger regiment in Amsterdam on 24 November 1813″…

The revival of statehood

Barely freeing Amsterdam, the Russians and their allies among the local conservatives started to create here the main pillars of authority. First of all, the National Guard was formed which on the next day marched in a celebratory parade through the Palace square of the city, filled with people and decorated with flags of the House of Orange. Where a handful of Slavs the winners, “having just descended to the shore, made up the honour guard under the balcony of the Palace”. Boosting their own enthusiasm with the arms from the Arsenal and the support of thousands of citizens-volunteers, who joined their ranks, the guards easily captured the nearby still-occupied by the enemy fortresses of Muiden and Helwig, which garrisons surrendered.

Then also arose the Provisional Government, whose members at 10 a.m. on the 24th November 1813, under the jubilant cries of the crowd and thunderous volleys of the gun salute, read “the Act of restoration of Holland”. Energetic measures for the further armament of the patriots were taken, as well as the restoration of “order in the city; all in a hurry to assist with the defence, and the public mood was more and more filled with zeal and firmness”. On the questions of the Benkendorf about what political system they wished for themselves, and what he was to report on it to the Emperor Alexander, all in one voice replied: “the Monarchy and the return of the Prince of Orange. Only this House could guarantee our independence! It was agreed to immediately to send a Deputy to the Prince, to beg him to return and lead his People”.

Restoration

Willem Frederick VI, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau-Diez (1771-1820), an active participant in the struggle with Napoleon, was in London when the tumultuous events in his home country unfolded. Having learnt about the Russian liberation of Amsterdam, he landed on the coast of the Netherlands and rushes to the capital. Active participant of those events recalled: “Here it was announced of the arrival of the Prince of Orange; friends of the family hastened to meet him, and Amsterdam was readied to meet their Ruler, chosen by right of birth and by the will of the people. The entire population of this great city went out to meet the Prince and filled the streets and squares. Upon leaving the coach on the 1st of December 1813, the Prince could barely stay on his feet because of the people who crowded around him, I rushed to meet him and held out my hand to help him wade through the crowd and enter the Palace. The Prince appeared on the balcony, and the uproar resumed with a vengeance. He was very touched by this scene, but it was easy to see that it was difficult for him to comprehend the height of his new position and appreciate the moment. The Prince was accompanied by the British Ambassador, sir Clancarty, who told me about the plans of his government regarding Holland; the frank talk completely reassured me about my political ventures. In the evening, the Prince, the Ambassador and I sat together in the carriage and drove off to the theatre. The Prince was received there with noisy enthusiasm; it was evident throughout the powerful mood of the nation which has not lost its sense of freedom. The Dutch, who until now had not the habit of seeing the Prince as their head, now paid tribute to the first citizen of the State; their cries were not cries of the servants, but was a witness of their choice, indicating the most worthy person for the salvation of the State. It was overwhelming and gave the sense of greatness of the unfolding events”.

…”Russian trace” of this topic can be continued up to the present day. So, on February 9, 1816, son of Willem VI, Crown Prince Wilhelm Friedrich Georg Ludwig of Orange, entered into marriage with the Russian Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna (1795-1865), sister of Emperor Alexander I. Their eldest son, Wilhelm III Alexander Paul Frederick Ludwig (b. 1817), became the third King of the Netherlands.

Anna Pavlovna Romanova
The Queen of the Netherlands and Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Anna Pavlovna Romanova

The future Queen of the Netherlands, Anna Pavlovna, was raised by her August mother – the wife of the Russian Tsar Paul I – Empress Maria Feodorovna and Countess Charlotte Karlovna Lieven. During almost fifty years that She lived in Holland, Queen Anne left a long, good memory for her acts of charity, care of the poor (nursing home and a hospital) and orphans (50 children’s shelters), hospitals and prisons. Her Majesty was buried at the Russian (ambassadorial) Church in the Hague. She is remembered in Holland even now – in 1998 the Dutch erected a statue in her honour, which happened to only a few monarchs and historical figures of the Netherlands”…

Honour guard of the First Person

Given the fact that the Russian Imperial Guard did not participate in the liberation of the Netherlands, the first soldiers carrying the ceremonial service at the Person of Crown Prince Willem VI of Orange (the de facto King of the Netherlands Wilhelm I Friedrich), were the ranks of the detachment of General Benkendorf, who took Amsterdam. It was his Cossacks, who ceremonially marched ahead of the carriage of the future Monarch, when he was leaving his palace with the intent to pay someone anyone an official visit. Russian Marines were guarding the private chambers of the Emperor, were at the doors of the palace when He appeared on public, forming guard lines along the streets of the city, down which He proceeded. Benkendorf’s officers, and often Alexander Hristoforovich himself, were performing functions of avant-guard and were first to meet the Prince at the place of His planned visits.

Portrait of A. H. Benkendorf, in the uniform of the Life Guards half-squadron of Rendermessage
Portrait of A. H. Benkendorf, in the uniform of the Life Guards half-squadron of Rendermessage

The continuation of the struggle: the Cossacks against the Navy

Realizing that it was his fault that his idol – Napoleon Bonaparte – forever lost Amsterdam, the French Admiral Virgual was doing everything to maintain his home base – a fortified Fort Halder.

So as to expel the enemy from this strategic point, the Russian command dispatched the already experienced in the Dutch situations Major Marclay, with his Cossack detachment that distinguished themselves earlier. Successfully manoeuvring along the coast, Marclay soon managed to arrange things so, that the enemy’s naval commander had nowhere left to obtain food for their crews.

Quite aware that his sailors – most of them Dutch by nationality – were prone to disobedience even in conditions of normal material provision, could raise a mutiny in the event of disruption of regular food supplies, Virgual signed surrender to the Russians. Under which terms, in return for permission “to continue to buy their food”, he was obliged not only to vacate the aforementioned Halder and leave there 10 guns, but to never participate in battles with his opponents.

…The aforesaid agreement between Virgual and Marclay was the first case of successful negotiations of the Don Cossacks with the enemy Admiral…

The conquest of Utrecht

The main trick which the Russians used after conquering the Amsterdam, was a success: the French, believing that there is ten times more Russians than it really was, succumbed to the moods paralysing the will to resist.

All this contributed to the actions of General Prince Zhevakhov, who on the morning of the 28th November 1813 came to the walls of Utrecht, near the North gate, and began a regular siege. It was, however, not needed, because an hour later the enemy withdrew from the fortress through its southern part, not relying on the power of their bayonets and the depth of the moat.

The citizens of Utrecht immediately turned the day of their liberation by the Russians from Napoleon’s tyranny into the city holiday. It was called Kozakkendag (that is, “The Day of the Cossacks”), and they continued to celebrate it until the German Imperial troops came there in the summer of 1914.

Anyone who has ever visited the Central Museum of the modern Utrecht, immediately see located there under exhibit #1 painting “The Cossacks, entering Utrecht in 1813.” Being given as a gift by the Dutch to the Emperor Alexander the First, it portrayed the entry of the Russian troops on the the Town Hall square of the city. From under the hooves of winners’ war horses there runs away the Gallic rooster, symbolizing the French, while local residents are greeting their saviours, enthusiastically waving their hands.

Cossacks entering Utrecht in 1813
Peter Van Hoesen. Cossacks entering Utrecht in 1813

The Dutch painter Peter Van Hoesen is the author of this painting, drawn in 1816. Leaving the high art behind and becoming a member of the National Guard in the days of the struggle for freedom of his Motherland, after the Napoleonic wars he again picked up the brush. In addition to portraits and landscapes, he create 10 battle paintings, glorifying the courage of his Slavic brothers-in-arms.

…”In the message dated 18th of December 1824, the Russian Minister of foreign Affairs Karl Nesselrode wrote to the artist that Van Hoesen’s painting was liked by the Czar. Together with the letter of gratitude he was given a diamond ring.

In Soviet times, the picture in the spirit of “the Dutch of the XVII century” was recognized as not having any special artistic value, and was sold back to Holland. It came to Utrecht, where it was given the place of honour: on a raised stand, in a separate room”…

Amersfoort

The Russian offensive on the town was conducted by several divisions. On the one side on the city marched Colonel Naryshkin, who having taken Fort Harderwyk, moved from Zwolle towards Amersfoort, from the other side was advancing the Baltic Baron, Major-General Georgij Fedorovich Stahl (1771 – after 1816), whose Cossack regiment and two squadrons of hussars were to go to Amersfoort between Swettenham and Deventer, and from the third side – both of them were helped by Major-General Prince Spyridon Erastovich Zhevakhov (Dzhavakhishvili) (1768-1815) – his hussar regiment and artillery were ordered “to attack the located there French avant-guards”.

…Unable to withstand the attack of the enemy, Napoleon’s supporters fled in panic. That, in turn, allowed the Russian military commanders to begin implementing the future plans of the high command: Naryshkin and Zhevakhov hurried to the walls of Rotterdam, the first in a forced march, while the second, after the transfer of their former positions to “the Prussian who headed to Utrecht”. Stahl’s dashing Cossacks chased the retreating French first over the rivers of Wijk and Vianen; then, after crossing Lech, placed their posts at Bomel and Gorinchem…

The battle of Gorinchem (Gorkum)

Benkendorf had luck in conquering this “primary storage location”, which was guarded by a garrison numbering up to 8000. Awaiting the approach of the Prussians (who, incidentally, never arrived to the designated area!), the Russians sent two companies and a couple of guns of the 72nd Tula infantry regiment under the command of Major Belemovskij “for the capture of the dam, which was used for crossing from Gorinchem to Hardingfele”. As is clear from the published in Warsaw in 1901 history of this military division (P. 192), “Belemovskij and his soldiers were barely done securing this important crossing, settled on the dam and on the bridge, as the French appeared. Upon seeing the Russian infantry ready to resist, and the burning wicks of the cannons, they did not attack, but retreated in the direction of Brede”. Effective aid to the advancing troops was also given by the Prussian infantry volunteers – a part of the Russian battalion – under command of major Friedrich August Peter von Colombes (1775-1854), arriving from under the Dordrecht. From the other side, also equally active here were the “hastily armed by the efforts of the inhabitants of the Rotterdam boats, firing at Gorinchem and coming close to the fortifications of this fortress”.

The Battle for Breda

Realizing the danger of the situation if this powerful fortress in Brabant continued to remain in the hands of the French, the Russians took the effort to promptly change the situation in their favour. To achieve this goal they used the existing experience of sudden capture of Amsterdam, with the only difference being that the direct implementer of the plan was not Benkendorf, but General G.F Stahl, known to us by Amersfoort.

Obeying the command, Stahl, under cover of distracting manoeuvres of the Captain Peterson of the Count Arakcheev’s Grenadier regiment, with a hundred Cossacks “in the direction of Gog-Svaljuv, Brill and Velvet-Sluis”, crossed the Vaal, and, without stopping anywhere, after the storming of the Antwerp gate, entered Breda on the same-named tract. Capturing 600 enemy soldiers and forcing the rest of the garrison (300 soldiers) to retreat in panic to Antwerp. Thus he mastered one of the strongest strongholds of the country, and completed on this the liberation from the French of the Dutch territory, looking forward to the arrival of the main forces.

But the French were not sleeping. Having recovered from the first surprise, they decided to take revenge. Setting out from Antwerp with 18000 soldiers and excellent artillery, where even the sailors of merchant ships were armed with it, the Napoleonic General Carnot, pushing the Russians away from Vestvesel (Westates?), rushed to Breda. Persistent fighting took place on the outskirts of the fortress, in areas of Turnhout, Geertruidenberg and Tilburg. Finally, we read in the report about those events, written down by Benkendorf, on the night from 7 on 8 December 1813: “the enemy started to bombard the city. On the 9th in the morning, increasing the cannonade, the enemy attempted attacks on Turnhout gate. The attack lasted a long time and stopped only when I made a sortie from the Antwerp gate. Soldiers of the Dutch battalion, hastily composed of young citizens, went into battle with shouts of joy. They showed bravery worthy of admiration. In support to them I detached a hundred of the best soldiers of our infantry. The enemy suffered considerable losses, and the cannonade ceased. In the evening, the cannonade was resumed, but the night was calm. The English could not help the Russians: their ships, which were loaded with horses, were detained by contrary winds at sea. The covered with ice Bomelwert bay was so inaccessible, so the Prussian General Bjulov (Bülow), who very much wished to help me, couldn’t transport his troops. Yet the French had to fear the arrival of the English and the Prussians, and either hurry with the capture of Breda, or leave their positions. On the 10th they captured all the roads except the one that led to the positions occupied by Prince Gagarin. Their avant-guard batteries approached the fortress during the night, and were moving rapidly. Because of this we lost people, and several houses were destroyed. By the end of the day, the enemy fiercely attacked the three gates. Antwerp gates were defended by Knjaz (Prince) Zhevakhov. His footmen hussars competed in the courage with our infantry. Turnhout gate was defended by General Stahl and the Prussians under the command of Colonel Colombes. All were filled with amazing courage; confidence in success was written in their faces. The Russian reserve counter-attacked and pinned the enemy to Buale-Duke gate, where the attack seemed less decisive. The place was quite open, and when evening came, I advanced with three squadrons of hussars, a detachment of Cossacks, and four horse-pulled guns. We furiously rushed on the enemy. The enemy was repulsed by the very first attack, and hastily retreated to a considerable distance. I stopped chasing them, fearing that this too easy a victory was a trap. By the will of fortune a detachment of Cossacks from Prince Gagarin arrived at that moment. With loud cries, the Cossacks rushed to the rear of the French. The French decided that I am acting in coordination with the troops of General Bjulov, and this circumstance forced them to quickly retreat. In the evening, I lit a lot of lights, and set the watchmen so, that it seemed as if a whole army was stationed in the camp. In other places, the attack was repulsed and the enemy suffered considerable losses. By night the shots died down everywhere. All the reports from the outposts said that a lot of noise was heard in the camp of the French. Because of dense morning fog it was impossible to discern enemy positions. At 8 o’clock I lowered the bridge and despite the fog advanced forward patrols. They told me that the besiegers abandoned their positions and withdrew from Breda. The joy of this news was moreover strengthened by the fact that we have started to run out of fodder, and the residents of the city, out of the food supplies.

General Stahl received orders to pursue the enemy along the Antwerp road. He could do it only to Vestvesel, where the French halted and entrenched. Colonel Colombes, with a detachment of Cossacks, went to Turnhout. On the next day, 12th of December — on the birthday of His Majesty the Emperor Alexander the First — we had a thanksgiving service on the walls of Breda.” Holland gained her freedom!

…As was the case with the capital, the exploits of Russians under the aforesaid enemy stronghold was generously rewarded. In particular, on the 15th of November 1815, 25 people of the “lower ranks” of the 2nd Jaeger regiment received the Military Order (“Soldier’s St. George”) for the protection of the fortress of Breda. The 1st horse artillery company received on the 19th of January 1818 a distinguishing mark on their shakos, with the inscription “For distinction, for courage, rendered in the battle with the French troops at the fortress of Breda”…

Deliberate neglect?

The scientific world of modern Europe is working hard to not notice all of what was written above. In the article by P. N. Grünberg “For the Amsterdam and Breda” (The Liberation of Holland according to “Benckendorff’s Notes”) we read: “The only comment to the described by us Grand battle, is that all(!) available in Russia Western studies are silent about the events of November-December 1813 in Holland. A typical example is in “The Low Countries 1780-1940” by Ernst H. Kossmann. Oxford, 1978 (English translation of the first Dutch edition of 1976). This Oxford edition of the best Dutch book on “comparative history” of the Netherlands and Belgium, devotes only one page 103 (first page of Chapter III of the “Great Netherlands”) to the event of the “departure” of the French and the “arrival” of Prince of Orange. Here’s what it says (re-translation from Russian): “A few weeks after the battle of Leipzig, a small number of allied troops crossed the borders of the former Dutch Republic; on November 12th (new style. – A. M.) they took Zwolle, on 15th — Groningen. The French commander gathered his forces in Utrecht and, when on 15th of November, the almost two-thousand man strong garrison left Amsterdam, there immediately started riots against the occupation authorities. The local population along with the few nobles, who declared themselves as its leaders, declared independence under the rule of the Prince of Orange… William of Orange accepted the offer “out of the hands of the people,” as he wrote in the proclamation on the 2nd of December, on the condition that he guarantees people’s freedom in the Constitution. It became clear that the country has established a constitutional monarchy…” As you can see, not a word about the Russians. Almost all of the previous one hundred pages are devoted to the invasion of the French, Batavian Republic, to how the French administration was falling apart, as if by itself, etc.

The beginning of the new state, the current Kingdom of the Netherlands is presented in the same key in the section “The Low Counties” of the latest edition of the famous Encyclopaedia Britannica. (Re-translation form Russian) “While Napoleon’s Empire seemed strong and stable, the Dutchmen served the new monarch, just as they served King Louis, especially since Prince of Orange did not object to such cooperation. The Dutch contingent continued to fight in Napoleon’s campaigns, suffering heavy losses during the invasion of Russia. But as soon as it became clear (after the failure of the Russian and Spanish campaigns) that the Napoleonic Empire was falling, influential Dutchmen began to prepare for the establishment of a new and independent regime. It was considered self-evident that the head of this regime should be the Prince of Orange, son of William V, who died in 1806, and that it was desirable for that regime to be installed by the Dutch people, and not by random foreign winners. The movement for the establishment of the new regime was headed by a great figure Gisbert Karel van Hogendorp, a man of firm principles, who did not recognise any government of the Netherlands after 1795, however considered it necessary to involve Prince of Orange as a constitution-limited monarch” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1978, Macropaedia, vol. 11, p. 152). We must add to this that in reality the Dutch did not have freedom of choice: the British were hurrying to liberate them. The “Orangists” knew that this liberation would not come for free. So their choice was in favour of Russia, and the sudden appearance of Benkendorf’s divisions in the Netherlands was probably the action, secretly agreed upon between the liberators and the liberated. Their unclouded alliance in Amsterdam was probably also the result of a pre-agreed policy. The omission by the authoritative British edition is understandable, because the British “lost” Holland to the Russians both in the military, and in diplomatic rivalry.

…And we cannot even speak about the presence of this matter in the Soviet and especially in the Russian (formed in the modern Russian Federation) historiography! Because even on the pages of the book published in 1964 by the Moscow publishing house “Science” “The Campaign of the Russian army against Napoleon in 1813 and the liberation of Germany” there is not a single complete document about the actions of the Russian troops in the Netherlands. Only in the material of “The Journal of military operations for November — December 1813” that same P.N. Grünberg comments: “about them there are two indirect references. The first passage: “the Swedish Crown Prince continued his conquests in Holland, which already recalled Prince of Orange from England to Amsterdam” (No. 421). The second passage is in No. 423: “the Enemy’s garrison in Breda (Holland) at the approach of two Cossack regiments from the brigade of Major-General Benkendorf, moved out to Anwer, and Breda was taken by the allied troops with the capture there of up to 600 people. Thus on December the 4th, the allied Northern army was holding the line from Breda to Dusseldorf”. Plus the pages 148 – 159, and 390 in the book of D.I. Oleynikov “Benkendorf” (Moscow, Molodaya Gvardiya, series “Life of remarkable people” of 2009. – P.395 ).

“And that’s all that was published about the Dutch campaign of the Russian Imperial army during the last 85 years in the “grateful” Fatherland!”…

So That They Are Remembered!

The Russian General A. H. Benkendorf wrote the following in French in the seventh book, published in Saint Petersburg “Military magazine” for 1817: “The Dutch expedition, which cost us 460 in dead and wounded, was well-received by the general disposition of the Dutch people.” In particular, we read in the biography of Alexander Khristoforovich: “since the end of November 1813, the word “Cossack” acquired an incredible popularity in Holland. From Napoleon’s horror-image, it became a symbol of liberation. The road by which the Cossacks passed the untaken by the Russian fortress of Deventer is still called Kozakkenweg – “the Cossack Road”, and a big old tree near the road – Kozakkenlinde (“Cossack Linden”). Nearby, in the town of Gorssel, there is another “Cossack Road”, and besides, a “Hussar Passage” and a hill “The Cossack Bump”, on which until 1941 had stood the house under the name “Cossack hut”. In our days, somewhere on the road from Arnheim to Rotterdam, cafe-bar “Cossack” successfully operates, and in the province of Gelderland they can treat you to a “Cossack pie”. Cold by European standards winter of 1813/14 was dubbed “Cossack’s winter” in some provinces of the Netherlands. Residents of the Hague sing Russian songs, having founded their Oeralkozakenkoor – “The Urals Cossack Choir”, and in Brabant plays a football team Kozakken Boys (“Cossack Boys”).

…As you can see, in the Netherlands of the beginning of XXI centuries there are still people who know how to preserve the memory of those foreign heroes, who gave their lives for the liberation of their homeland.

Even if they committed their immortal acts almost 200 years ago…

— Alexander Mashkin


An afterword…

The reason for such neglect and erasing of the history is different for the West and for the USSR.

In the West, the early seeds of what later became EU were sawn in the form of creation of the artificial state of Belgium, and later the “Benelux” – Low Lands. For that a different history – of European unity, without Russians – was needed, and was written. Not only was the memories of Russia were erased, but Russia itself was almost successfully erased in the course of the 20th century – in 1917, 1941, 1991.

In USSR, the reason for forgetting was the Czar past and the Cossacks. Cossacks were a traditional pillar of support of Russian monarchy and the Russian state. When that state was destroyed in the 1917, anything that reminded of its past got retouched. It is said that Lenin held an especial dislike to the Cossacks for the reason mentioned above. So it is not strange that in the Soviet historical literature everything that had to do with pre-1917 period got diluted to the point of abstract and terse sketches.

Interestingly, the memories of Cossacks lived on in children’s game of “Cossacks and Robbers”, but even that slowly disappeared, especially after the War, when the children began playing in “Partisans and Fascists”.

And in the modern, post-2000, Russia I do not think that they have come around to restoration of those chapters yet. A lot is still being rebuilt after the desolation of 1991-2000.

Even Google seems have some selective indexing. If one searches for the Cyrillic name of Hardingfele, one gets only 2 hits, regarding some cruises. However, if you go to Russian Yandex, you’ll get a viariety of hits, pertaining to the Benckendorf’s campaign in Holland in 1813.

The Future of the Russian World

I have on previous occasions translated articles by the excellent analyst Rostislav Ishchenko. This particular article, “The Future of the Russian World” appeared on Kont on the 28th of September. It gives a good definition of what the Russian World is.


Flag commemorating a years since the Crimean Spring

Two and a half years ago, when Crimea has just returned to Russia, I once had the opportunity to participate in a conference in Yalta, devoted to the prospects of the Russian world. Then, I was surprised by the limited approach to the issue by the majority of the participants in the discussion.

Some thought that the Russian world is Russia within its existing borders. Particularly insistent on this definition were the Crimeans, who came just barely into those boundaries fall. Some identified the Russian world as the territory of the former USSR. Those inclined towards the monarchy were replacing the Soviet Union with the Russian Empire. At the same time, most of them agreed with the fact that Alaska, is definitely a part of the Russian world, while Poland is not Russian, as for Finland, opinions diverged. Finally, yet another group believed that the Russian world extends to the Western borders of the states that once were members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO).

As you can see, no matter how far we are willing to push the boundaries of the Russian world, members of this or that group all agree on the fact that the Russian world is only part of the known world, and is relatively small in comparison with the non-Russian world. No one was able to answer my question, in what exactly way Yakuts or Kamchatkan are so different from French or Germans, that Kamchatkan are without reservations allowed in the Russian world, while the French and Germans are not allowed at all? Although a part of the Germans (in GDR) were in the boundaries of WTO and, probably, too could qualify for inclusion into the Russian world.

This restrictive approach has another vulnerability. All the supporters of the Russian world (in whatever borders they were squeezed) state, that in order for the Russian world to exist, it must give the global world some idea, show it the direction of development.

But how can we “give an idea” of the Russian world to those, whom we a priori refuse to include into it?

For comparison, when we defined the modern world as Pax Americana, we understand that we are talking about a global world, not about the world within the borders of the United States, not about the world of the Anglo-Saxons and not about the world of the North Atlantic. Border ideas coincide with the boundaries of the planet, and if mankind lived outside the Earth, the idea of a Pax Americana would have expanded with it out of the planetary limits.

And this is not about Anglo-Saxon expansionism and not about the Russian peacefulness. In Russia there is also a sufficient number of supporters of solving complex international problems with military force. The most interesting thing is that even the Russian expansionists, who see their ideal in the tri-colour over the White House and a dozens of aircraft carrier battle groups sailing the seas and oceans of the planet under the St. Andrew’s flag, still however, just like their peace-loving opponents, separated the “true” Russian world, from the rest of the world. They consider 3/4 of the Earth’s land as something alien, something that is necessary to be defeated by the military force, that can be remotely controlled, but that is not subject to integration.


The meeting of defence Ministers of States participating in the Warsaw Pact. 1968

Characteristically, both of these ideas are in direct contradiction with the Russian history and the practice of building of the Russian State, be it in the form of the Kingdom, or the Empire, or a Union. If the kings, emperors and General secretaries thought about the boundaries of the Russian/Soviet world, the state would not have gone beyond the borders of the time of Ivan III. And even within those borders there lived a lot of foreigners.

While the United States created a melting pot in which all (even the British) have disappeared without a trace, becoming a new nation of Americans, Russia has always built the hostel, in which all that joined, lived comfortably lived, and where national identity did not preclude a general Russian-ness.

And that was understood by our enemies. While rushing into our land us with arms, they are well versed in national diversity, and have always sought to use any differences, to play people off against each other. But while identifying us from the outside, they have always talked about the whole mass of the peoples, as Russians.

Actually, this is the idea of the Russian World, which is opposed to the idea of Pax Americana. American world – a world of the averages. In its ideal expression, all nations and races should melt, mix and give at the output a common race. The two sexes are merged into a common “third gender”. Super-tolerance should ideally go so far as to artificially limit the abilities of intellectuals, because it is unfair to idiots, and prevents the allocation of the arithmetic average in the field of intelligence.

For its part, the Russian World, offers unity, which does not encroach on the variety. As in a family where everyone is different (all with a different degree of consanguinity), but all are united by common goals and interests.

That is why the United States is opposed to Russia, which, since the formulation of the ideals of the Pax Americana in the mid-twentieth century, was an example of an alternative world order. And it is a successful and sustainable alternative.

Russian World arose with its main features by the beginning of the XVI century, when the United States did not even exist as a project. Not having lost any nation, without coming across with anything even remotely resembling genocide of Indians, the Russian World lived on for half a millennium, while constantly expanding.

Our opposition with the US is not ideological, not economic or financial (this is only the external form ,in which the opposition manifests). We have a confrontation of the systems – not so much in world views, as in world perceptions.


The participants of the festive events dedicated to the anniversary of the “Crimean spring”

We live on the same planet but in different worlds. These worlds can push each other, but cannot mix.

All the while, the Russian World can coexist with the American, but the American cannot coexist with the Russian. This inability is determined at the level of basic values. For the Russian World there is nothing extraordinary in the recognition of the right to existence of another, alternative world. From the point of view of the United States, American world is the only correct, the only possible ideal form of human existence. Everything else should be eliminated.

From here we reach some simple conclusions:

First, Russia cannot artificially limit the scope of the Russian world, because the decision on entry into the Russian World is reached by every nation of their own accord. Russia can neither allow, nor prohibit, nor order. This would be contrary to the basic principles of the Russian World.

Second, because Pax Americana claims to exclusivity and uniqueness, it will always carry the threat of Russian World. The American idea does not provide for its existence. And because an aggressive attempt to eliminate the danger of the America World is contrary to the basic values of the Russian World, involving coexistence and not aggression, then its expansion is only possible by protecting those who enter the Russian world, escaping from American values.

Actually it is exactly this policy that Russia is now conducting in Syria. And Russian attempts not to stifle the opposition, but to make the parties in the civil war to agree, rely exactly on the basic values of the Russian World, involving not the destruction of the different, but coexistence with them.

Thirdly, being the alternative to American global idea, the Russian world is in itself a global idea, the ideal form of organization of the planetary common house of the peoples. It is clear that with the centre of this world, which is Russia, will lie the responsibility for maintaining order in this world, like the responsibility for the maintenance of order in Pax Americana lies with the United States.

And here it is extremely important not to succumb to the temptation of simple and fast decisions, and not to go the way of the US, which rescinded the role of the global judge, who is subject to the same rules as in the whole community, in favour of the Sheriff from the Wild West, whose Colt is the absolute law.

If the Russian global justice becomes the same as modern American, then Russian world will turn into American, and the peoples of the world are not interested in shedding blood and sweat for a change of sign at the jail from one to another.

The Singing Weapon – Aleksandrov Ensemble (Documentary with EngSubs)

On the 25th of December 2016, in a single plane crash, en-route from Sochy, Russia to Syria, perished 1/3 of the world-renowned Aleksandrov Ensemble. This is tragic loss and a strong blow against Russia, against the singing ambassadors of Russia abroad and a bright symbol within.

As a tribute, I translated the following 2008 documentary, titled “The Singing Weapon”, which is how Winston Churchill referred to it after listening to its performance during the 1945 Yalta Conference in Crimea. If it is a weapon, then this ensemble is a “weapon” of peace unity and accord, which it brings with song and dance to all peoples.

The formatted subtitle file in ASS format can be downloaded separately. Full text of the script is below the video frame.

This is a unique footage, made during the first recording of the Anthem of USSR.
The whole country was intended to hear the Anthem on the radio on the night from the 31st of December to the 1st of January 1944.
In complete secrecy, the ensemble directed by Aleksander Aleksandrov – the composer of the Anthem, was preparing to perform it.
Late at night a phone call is made to Kremlin:
The Anthem does not sound as it was wanted by the “Leader of All Times and Peoples”
Stalin aborts a meeting and a few minutes later enters the Central telegraph building,
which housed radio studio during the War.
He ascends to the machine room, and summons Aleksandrov to him.
‘Aleskander Vasiljevich, I wish that out people listened to the Anthem as if at a church service,
Or have you forgotten that I know something about it. I have studied at a Seminary, after all.’
Aleksandrov replied simply:
‘And I, Iosiph Vissarionovich, was the last regent of the Saviour Cathedral Choir.’
‘Performing Anthems is my profession.’
“Hail, created by the will of the peoples,”
“united and mighty Soviet Union.”
“The Singing Weapon” – Aleksandrov Ensemble
It was the British PM Churchill, who called this ensemble for the “singing weapon”,
when he heard it during the Yalta Conference in 1945.
He joked that the allies did not need to open the second front,
if the Russians had such a secret weapon.
Twice “Red Banner” decorated, Aleksandrov Academic ensemble of dance and song of the Russian Army.
When you say that you work in Aleksandrov Ensemble, many shake their head,
some openly say that they don’t know.
And yet, when I bring friends,
they come from the concerts under strong impression, saying they are floored.
Song “Smugljanka” is performed.
Both the country and the world have many military ensembles.
But it was this one that was acknowledged as the best man’s choir of the 20th century.
People of not the highest military decorations,
the members of the creative collective, which got the highest merits of the country.
If you ask anybody abroad,
what is Russia, what they associate with Russia,
they’d say it’s “Kalinka”, it’s Bolshoj, it’s Mariinskij Theatre,
it’s St. Peterburg, it’s Moscow, it’s Aleksanderov Ensemble.
London. The traditional annual Week of Russian Culture
made the headlines mainly due to participation of Aleksandrovites.
We were invited to the BBC studio and asked to perform something.
We had little time, compressed timetable, so needed choose something quick and merry.
And we performed “On the Sunny Glade”
“On a sunny glade, cocking his brow,”
“a young fellow plays about love on a harmonica.”
There is a high note there.
I turned it into fermato so that it would be longer and more beautiful.
And once we performed this, the host jumped up, raising his arms,
saying, yes, this is exactly what we needed. What they wanted –
a Russian, Soviet, song that captivated everyone, who was in the studio.
“Play and tell yourself, harmonica,”
“how that dark-eyed girl drove me crazy.”
This song is recognised from the very the first accords not only those who were through the Great Patriotic War.
Children, grandchildren, and even great-grandchildren of the front-soldiers understand what power it gave to the people at that terrible hour.
The war has just started, when the director of the Red Army Ensemble Aksander Aleksandrov
already asked the Minister of Defence that the collective was sent to the front.
He by chance saw the newspaper with the poem of Lebedev-Kumach.
Aleksandrov immediately realised – this is what needed right now.
A song-appeal, a song-symbol.
The yet to become legendary “Sacred War” was written by the composer in 4 hours.
(1978 footage) When he came to the rehearsals, he wrote on the blackboard
the score of those song. There was no time to print – time was short.
Comrades wrote down the notes and the words and quickly learnt them by heart.
And on the second day we already performed this song at the Belorusskij train station.
“Raise, the huge country,”
“Raise to the battle till death.”
“With the dark Fascist force.”
“With the accursed horde.”
When we finished performing it for the first time, there was such a deathly silence.
He said, we exchanged glances with the grandfather. What happened, maybe it did not pass?
“Let the righteous fury.”
“Boil up as a wave.”
“The People’s War is going”
“The Sacred War”
The director became simply scared. How can this be? The song is not taken in?
All stand silent.
At that time it seemed like 5-6 or 10 minutes passed… Maybe only a minute.
And then came the storm of applause, “hurrah!”
Solders demanded that it be performed again and again.
It became a concert of one song.
“…death to the violators, robbers, torturers of people.”
And so the troops were departing to the front with it.
And later the whole Soviet people sang it.
“Raise, the huge country,”
“Raise to the battle till death.”
By the end of the 80s, the totalitarian regime was collapsing and much became revised.
Back then there appeared articles claiming that the song was written in 1916 by a russified German.
All that turned out to be groundless artifice.
No hoaxes managed to stick to the song.
She defended herself.
And still, in every performances of the ensemble, the “Sacred War” is invariably heard.
“Sacred War”
I can tell of an episode in Poland, when we did not perform “Sacred War”.
The audience demanded from us to perform “Sacred War” at the end of the concert. Normally we perform it at the beginning.
And we were not allowed to leave the stage until we performed it.
The ensemble travelled the whole world with this song.
It sounded in the most unexpected places:
From Presidential palaces to the hot spots.
But in May 2007 it sounded at an absolutely improbable place:
In the layer of the possible enemy, as they would have said in the times of Cold War.
While touring Belgium, the ensemble management got an outlandish idea:
To perform, where not a single artist from Russia previously performed.
At the NATO headquarters.
The decision was reached during 3-4 days,
that Aleksandrov Ensemble can perform at NATO.
The hall, dimensioned to 350 people was crammed with an audience of about 2000,
wishing to see what the Russian artists in military uniforms are capable of.
You had to see the faces of those people. NATO.
We anderstand that there are different people there, with different attitude towards Russia,
different attitude towards army.
But one had to see how they in a common impulse applauded and cried “Bravo!”
The next day all newspapers came out with almost identical headlines:
Russians took NATO without a single shot.
NATO… There was no special feeling of “enemy’s layer”.
They are pleasant, kind guys.
They with pleasure took CD that we were giving away.
And they took not one disk, but 5-6 – must be for the whole family.
People at NATO applauded several encores of “Victory Day”.
While 60 years ago, in June 1945,
the Soviet Foreign Ministry receives an official letter from the US State Department
inviting the Aleksandrov Ensemble on a tour.
Stalin is for it – let them travel to the allies.
The military band receives foreign currency
And so that they would look presentable in the harsh post-war time,
the are provided with funds for new shirts, forms, even nightgowns.
This unique document shows that the decision was taken at the Political Bureau level.
On mid-summer of 1945, Truman learns about the invitation extended to the Red Banner ensemble.
World War II was not yet concluded,
but the revision of its outcome was already in the works.
In a few weeks, the American nuclear bomb would be dropped on Hiroshima.
Cold War would start in 2 years.
Therefore Truman personally cancels all the concerts of the best performers of the country-victor,
including there performance at the White House.
The Senate supports this decision, producing a strange excuse:
They proclaimed that not a single man in Soviet military uniform would set foot on American soil.
Then Moiseev’s Ensemble was sent, while the first was planned to be The Red Banner Ensemble.
A little later the Ensemble was offered to come, but on the condition that they would perform in civilian clothes.
Aleksandrov was categorically against.
“We are the Soviet Army Ensemble.
Let the ensemble of the capitulated army perform without uniforms.”
The ensemble would perform at the White House. Some 45 years later.
And the military uniform would not be scaring anyone.
The first lady of USA, Barbara Bush, was among the audience.
She said that she’d gladly serve in Red Army.
She liked so much both our uniforms and our sound.
“On a horn, on the drums, on an accordion.”
“We are never downcast”
“We always play with a spark”
“We are musicians!”
It is hard to count how many invitations the ensemble received
from the highest people of various countries.
Aleksandrovites were welcomed by all: from presidents and royalties
to the Pope of Rome.
There not such large men’s, and especially military, choirs anywhere in the world – it’s unique.
“Be well, our country”
“The fatherland of great ideas”
The foundations to the famous ensemble were laid at the end of the 20s.
In a small room of the Red Army house, a few amateur performers decided to create a musical collective.
Aleksander Vasiljevich Aleksandrov, professor of the Moscow Conservatory, was invited the director.
Already then, he was a renowned choir conductor and composer.
On the 12th of October 1928, 8 singers, 2 dancers, accordion player and a reader
gave their first performance before the leadership of the Red Army.
The performance was so well-liked, that in a few days the collective was enlisted into staff,
and was given an official name:
The Ensemble of the Red Army Song of the Central House of the Frunze’s Red Army.
While already in 1935, by the decree of Central Executive Committee,
they become the “Red Banner Ensemble of the Red Army Song and Dance of the Soviet Union”
Aleksander Vasiljevich went all his life towards the creation of this ensemble.
He was born in 1883
in the village of Plahino of Ryazan governorship, in a peasant family.
The whole village was of a singing kind. Everyone sang there.
They lived in a kilometre from the church,
where his parents serviced, and in the evenings they’d often gather and sing.
Young Aleksandrov was lucky – he was taken to study to St. Peterburg by a relative, who sang in the choir of the Kazan Cathedral.
It was there that the future composer and choirmaster studied the examples of the church singing.
Later the talented youth is admitted to the court chapel.
Rimskij-Korsakov would speak thus of him during the admittance exams to the St. Peterburg Conservatory:
“Such talent must not perish.”
Aleksandrov did not abandon his work at a church choir until 1922.
He learned all the finesse of the vocal trade there.
In 1918, Patriarch Tihon, who has now been canonised,
invited Aleksander Vasiljevich to be the regent of the Saviour Cathedral in Moscow.
And he was the last regent of the cathedral until 1922.
Aleksander Aleksandrov devoted most of his life to the Moscow Conservatory.
He created there the Choir and Conducting Department.
Being a thoroughly civilian man, he would long hesitate to take the position of a director of a military collective.
He said: “I am not a military man, how can I conduct a military ensemble?”
They said to him, then you’ll be a military man, to which grandfather replied:
“I cannot be any less than a general.”
“You’ll be a general, then,” Stalin then said to him.
On the 19th of February 1933
the ensemble performed for the first time at Bolshoj Theatre for the country’s leadership.
Stalin and Aleksandrov met in person.
Since then the Red Banner Ensemble performed in every single concert for the government.
A.V. Alaksandrov is the only artist, who was accepted into the Party at the Political Bureau level.
In 1937 the Red Banner Ensemble goes to the International Fair in Paris.
A curious event did happen.
185 performers went to France using currency,
which was left unspent after MHAT’s tour of the France.
We didn’t sell tickets for the first concert – no one knew what we were.
It was a new artform.
But after the concert the whole Paris was abuzz about the ensemble,
that there were queues, people stood in them over night, all tickets got sold and re-sold by speculators.
Instead of the planned 6 concerts, the choir gives 15.
The receive Gran Prix, and are met as heroes in Moscow.
The international acclaim of the collective started from this tour.
Each tour abroad turned into a special mission.
Once after a concert in Paris, Marina Vladi came backstage.
She told performers: “Thank you for the memory of my motherland”
When we were in Paris in the 60s,
Vinogradov, the Soviet ambassador to France,
put it very beautifully an well, saying:
“Dear comrades, what you did today is priceless.
A hundred ambassadors would not be able to do over a year, what you did today during the concert that I attended.”
During this same tour, Aleksandrov was approached by the secretary of the Communist Party of France,
and asked to audition a girl from a worker’s family.
The young singer was so liked by the Soviet performers that they asked her to sing with them at the concert.
And a few years later her name would be known by the whole world: Mireille Mathieu
Now the star of the French song herself invites Aleksandrovites to her concerts when she visits Moscow,
And it is considered a good luck among the international artists to perform together with the Red Banner Ensemble.
You need to imagine, China all there on the other side, this is Amur river, a boat sails by,
and the twice Red Banner decorated Academic Russian Army Ensemble of Song and Dance of Aleksandrov
“On the border clouds drift by low.”
“The sombre land is enveloped in silence.”
“By the high shores of Amur”
Performing with the stars at the most famous halls of the world
is an honourable and responsible work for these artists.
However, they view touring of the military detachments as their duty.
The ensemble was created for the Army, after all.
This Army changed names through the times,
but her main spectator remained the same: a soldier.
You go to the concerts for the soldiers with some hightened
desire to work and get great pleasure from it.
They like to go, where people have it the hardest, where life is most difficult:
To the most remote divisions, detachments of the Russian army,
Meeting this famous performers is a breather for the soldiers.
A Red Banner Ensemble performance at your division is the best memory from the service.
Stay in line. I will pass by.
That, furthest on the right.
“And for me – that girl in beige trousers in the first row”
Aleksandrovites have been to all hot spots.
They give more than 100 concerts each year in Army divisions.
Sometimes in places, where no other artist been before.
First 14 hours by plane, then god knows how long in a bus, then maybe you get a chance to sleep or maybe not,
and then you come out to the people and you sing for your compatriots.
Letting them know that they are not forgotten in these god-knows-where garrisons.
Aleksandrov Esemble is an artistic division of the Russian Army.
But besides the repetitions and concerts, as suited for the artists,
they have also a real military life.
Like the rest, they go to drills, take the Oath.
At one time, Boris Aleksandrov wrote cantata “To You We Swear, Fatherland”
It is the only in the world work, where the Oath is performed to music.
How else can that be, when the collective is created by the Army?
It’s created by the Army. The people.
1987, Canada Hokey Cup.
At all tours abroad, the artists knew that they were the ambassadors of their country.
Therefore the State Anthem is only performed by the Aleksandrovites.
Year 1987, The Canada Cup in Quebec.
The complete Red Banner Ensemble, choirs of Canada and USA are on the ice.
Our country’s Anthem sounds first.
The hall is for 18500.
And when we finished performing the Soviet Anthem,
people in the hall stood up and as one, maybe 10 minutes, maybe more, were applauding and greeting.
They didn’t give a chance to perform the Anthems of the other countries – of Canada and USA.
Aleksandrovites would remember this performance of the Anthem just as the unforgettable first performance of the “Sacred War”
And what would be later said about this Anthem.
that it was stuttering…
And started to pervert the music to try to remove these “stutters”
While, on the contrary, by these 1/16th he emphasised the sounding of each word.
Attention, Quebec is speaking and showing.
Aleksandrovites always brought luck to our hokey players, just like on that memorable day in Canada.
They could not even imagine, that they would not be performing this Anthem for almost 10 years.
At the beginning of the 90s, Aleksandrovites felt especially acutely how the fate of the ensemble coincided with the fate of the country.
Just like the rest, they suffered in incursion of a sub-culture.
In the “Perestroika” frenzy, the Red Banner Ensemble was declared to be a “symbol of totalitarianism”.
Aleksandrov Ensemble’s songs were attempted ditched from the ship of “modernity”.
I felt this steam roller: they tried to change the repertoire, introduce some pop-singers,
Remove songs: “Why do you still perform ‘Sacred War’ and ‘Kalinka’ and ‘Nightingales’, everyone is tired of them…”
It was not an easy time. Hard. But we persevered.
Because we were on the right creative track.
The most difficult trial for the Aleksandrovites of those years, was to not fall for the temptation,
and not to adapt to the steam of tastelessness.
Even though they were rehearsing in a house with a leaking roof.
Even though there were few concerts.
But they sounded the repertoire that was created over many years,
those songs, that were beloved by the people.
Time made these songs eternal.
“What is the starting point of Motherland?”
“From the cherished bench by the gates”
In the end of the 80s, the unchanging leader of the Red Banner Ensemble, Boris Aleksandrovich Aleksandrov.
He lead the collective for 40 years and contributed to it not less than his father.
Aleksandrov senior groomed him to take over.
However, after the abrupt death of the ensemble’s creator in Berlin in 1946, there were other contenders.
Back then, yet again Stalin intervened into the fate of the ensemble.
There were many contenders. He said: “What is the question? Aleksander Valiljevish has an excellent son,”
“his assistant, and he should continue his father’s work.” (Interviewed: Evgenij Aleksandrov, grandson of the founder)
In 1948, 2 years after his father’s death,
Boris Aleksandrov arrives with the ensemble to the half-ruined Berlin.
The concert is performed under open sky as no hall would have room for such an audience.
All were expecting “Sacred War”.
But a song that would become the calling card of both the ensemble and Russia for the years to come.
Victor Nikitin was the first performer of “Kalinka”.
A tradition appeared abroad to give the performer of the song a title of “Mr. Kalinka”
Still, in each country he had a specific honorary: Monsieur, Señor, Pan.
Evgenij Beljaev became the unsurpassed performer of this song.
The song and the title is carried over in the ensemble from generation to generation.
Boris Aleksandrovish Aleksandrov preserved and multiplied the golden repertoire of the collective.
He discovered and raised a row of soloist,
who were oft-times more popular, that the pop artists.
There names are not forgotten in the ensemble.
“Ask those soldiers”
“Who lay under the birch trees” (“And their sons will answer…”)
Vadim Ruslanov – a young and promising actor of the Vahtangov Theatre preferred to go over the the ensemble.
He became the the first performer of the song “Do Russians Want War?”
“Do Russians Want War?”
“Do not cry, girl, the rains will pass”
Ivan Bukreev had a rare voice.
No one could measure with him in humorous songs.
During a tour to Cuba, his performance was so well-liked by Fidel Castro, that he asked to give an extra concert.
For his breathtaking bass, Aleksej Segeev was called “Shaljapin in military uniform”.
The most famous composers of the country: Solovjov-Sedoj, Novikov, Hrennikov, Dunaevskij
brought their songs first and foremost to the Red Banner ensemble.
Here there door is always open also to the beginner composers.
It was the Aleksandrov Ensemble that gave life to the song “Victory Day”
“This Victory Day is permeated by gunpowder smell”
When Tuhmanov brought this song to the Red Banner Ensemble,
and I know this from Uncle Boris,
the whole commission gathered to audition the song,
and all started whispering between themselves, trying to find flaws,
while Boris said, I am taking it, it’s a good song and it will have a great life.
Eduard Lobkovskij was the first performer of “Victory Day”
Boris Aleksandrov always remembered his father’s words:
“If there is no choir, there will be no ensemble.”
His work with the choir always reminded of a sacrament.
He got from the musicians seemingly the impossible.
Found incredible colours.
Defined fine nuances.
Created powerful polyphony.
Even the professionals could not always decipher the secret of the sounds.
Of course, there is the finesse of engaging of different voices,
Reduction of the sounding, which is achieved by separate scores sounding quieter and quieter
and then at full strength!
“Let the soldiers sleep a little.”
“While tomorrow there again will be a battle,”
“That’s how it’s predestined by fate”
“That we depart without having loved enough” “From our wives from, our fields.”
The best choirmasters of the world tried to crack the mystery of Aleksandrov’s
Three forte and four piano.
A choir is famous exactly for sounding like a single chord.
So that there are no “tails”
You know, a song may sound,
the conductor cuts off, while someone is still sounding
That’s called to “leave a tail”.
And the audience hears it all. It’s terrible.
Many tried to imitate them,
tried to create similar collectives,
not only in out country, but also abroad.
But there never appeared the second Red Banner.
One must live by music in the ensemble.
The title of “Mr. Kalinka” is held by Vadim Ananjev.
“We’ve all been challenged many times”
“By battles and marches”
“We, from a soldier and to a Marshall”
“Is one family”
Right from the inception of the ensemble, a strictest professional selection is imposed.
Even many well-known artists did not pass the test.
Many youths come here nowadays, but not all become Aleksandrovites.
There are no accidental people here.
I personally fell demand and lack of air time on radio and TV
I want that these songs would sound more
because a song creates an emotion, which
can manifest in some good deeds towards your country,
towards your friends, towards your loved ones.
This is such song that can change a person.
“Lived easily and simply, but now I became grown-up”
“I got summons, but don’t be sad, my bride,”
“don’t miss me guys, I am off to become soldier”
“And I promise we will meet again”
“And meanwhile, and meanwhile”
“Await my letters from the regiment”
“One, two, left”
A person may not know what he’s up against, when coming to listen to the Aleksandrov Ensemble”
‘Just for entertainment…’
‘Let’s go listen to them’
‘What’s this ensemble’
But when the finally encounter it, this avalanche,
this something completely indomitable,
then a person would first get a light shock,
and then, at that moment starts the re-education of the person, a kind of rebirth.
Review of his tastes, maybe even, moral guides,
because this repertoire is simply immortal.
“Become my universe”
“Revive the silenced strings”
‘Chose 50 most brightest adjectives,
insert them before “The Ensemble of the Soviet Army”,
and you will get the impression about its performance.’
A quote from an English newspaper.
The words of praise are addressed both the Red Banner in general,
an to its three components:
Men’s choir, unique orchestra, and the dance troupe.
Almost all dance pieces, are the face of the ensemble,
In what sense. For example we have Zaporozhje Cossacks.
They are the golden fund of the ensemble.
Aleksandrovites are not just a singing weapon, but also… a dancing one.
While in songs the ensemble created the reference standard of a choir performance,
the choreographic group of the ensemble demonstrated what a military dance should be.
Despite the famous and beloved repertoire,
one cannot say that the ensemble lives on old achievements
They seek and find new forms of self-expression,
while not retreating from the ensemble’s traditions,
from its unique image, that was created over the decades.
Here we managed to use a new form for our performance:
During its 80 years, the ensemble never performed on the street,
that is, marching like orchestras do.
The Red Banner Ensemble marched down the central 2km long central street of Quebec.
200.000 people welcomed Russian soldiers, who carried not threat, but song, peace and accord.
There stood thousands of people,
and of course, we felt pride, when we marched down that street and they applauded.
We felt pride for the country, for our Army, because they applauded our armed forces.
We often speak nowadays about the information wars,
but few of us speak of information peace.
I think that we have a very strong weapon.
Stronger than any steel, stronger than hundreds of diplomats – the Aleksandrov Ensemble.
2003 footage.
Exactly 60 years later, it was the Aleksandrov ensemble,
that recorded the reference record of the Russian Anthem.
The song “Sacred War”, yes, is probably a visiting card of the ensemble,
however, I think the most important thing for any state is the Anthem.
The Anthem starts here, from the very first folders. Here it is.
The Anthem of the Soviet Union, under number 00
In other words, the most important, the very first song.
Score of the Anthem of USSR.
The Anthem was very hard-gained, and it simply
should not have been removed. Mihalkov is a fine fellow!
He wrote a new text, which became a rather neutral text.
And it speaks about our Motherland, about her greatness.
In the West, the Alksandrov Ensemble is often referred as one of the main trademarks of Russia.
However, the word “symbol” is closer to our hearts.
The symbol of Russia.
The musical emblem of our culture.
Without service, without faith,
without the energy of soul and talent, without honesty, a symbol cannot possibly exist.
“Russian troops march shoulder to shoulder”
“And let the military path is not an easy one”
“We shall faithfully and truthfully serve Russia”
Already in the far away 30s, the director of the ensemble, Aleksandrov, dreamt of a children’s choir group.
Today, young Aleksandrovites already perform at concerts.
And it is not so important if they will become real performers,
if they will make it into the famous Red Banner Choir,
for already now they learnt the most important thing from the ensemble:
to love great music, to love Motherland.
“O Russia, for ever you’re strong sacred country!”
“O Russia, for ever the land that we love!”
“The fame that is great and the will that is mighty –”
“So be they thy treasure in ages to come.”
“Praised be our free Fatherland, –”
“Cent’ries-old union of brotherly peoples,”
“Popular wisdom given us by ancestors.”
“Praised be our country! We’re proud of thee!”
“Over valleys and hilltops”
“A division was advancing forth”
“So as to take with battle the Pacific coast -”
“The stronghold of the White Army”
“The glory of those days shall not be silenced.”
“It shall never dim.”
“Partisan divisions were taking towns.”
“Partisan divisions were taking towns.”

In Memory of Elizaveta Glinka, Russian Humanitarian Philanthropist, Died in the Plane Crash over Black Sea

When I first hear of the crash, the tragic loss of almost the compete Red Army Choir – Aleksandrov Ensemble, death of 9 journalists from three Russian channels, what tugged most at my heart, was mentioning of the Elizaveta Glinka’s name on the list of the people lost. She was know among the people by her endearing name Doctor Liza.

Throughout these past 2 years I have been reading about her valiant work, helping the children of the civil war-ravaged Donbass, where civilians, including many children, were (and still are) wounded, maimed and killed by the Ukro-Nazi artillery shellings.

Grapham Philips, I think the only Western (UK) freelance reporter, who documented the civil war in Donbass, share this fragment of interview with Doctor Liza, that he filmed in April 2016, telling her that “Many people think that you are an angel”:

She replied:

Let them say, Grisha (a kindly russification of Graham), it is funny, it is pleasant, but it’s funny. What kind of angel am I? I am just a common woman. Let them say it. As for work. I am working a lot. This is very hard, and there is nothing angelic in this work, you see. It entails long negotiations with bureaucrats, which are not always successful. See, for example, I just got a list. This is the new list for admissions to hospital. 2 wounded children. 2 blind children. Children born in 2014, that is already during the war. We are going to transport them, they are going to St.Peterburg, as hospitals in Moscow do not have places for such patients – and I want to draw the journalistic attention to this fact. And there are the documents for the children that have already been transported out – we work on each child case individually.

And in this April 2016 interview fragmet to Graham, he tells that “Everything is possible”:

There was a girl, who was given a terrible outlook, and Vika (kindly shortening of Victoria), she became well, and was coming up to the guard and would dance – a little swan or some other part, she was making such a show – a child that could not even SIT before, she lay on the arms. So, you see… Everything is possible, Grisha (a kindly russification of Graham).

Doctor Liza, you will be remembered and stay in our hearts. Always.


These two RT articles, aptly capture the mood of this loss:

‘Dr. Liza was a miracle’: Russians horrified as revered humanitarian activist listed on fatal flight

Renowned Russian humanitarian and charity activist Elizaveta Glinka, widely known as Dr. Liza, is feared dead after boarding the plane bound for Syria that crashed Sunday morning off the Sochi coast.

The 54-year-old head of the ‘Fair Help’ fund was supposed to travel to Latakia to deliver medical supplies to a hospital, according to the Human Rights Council.

Her fund also said that Glinka was “taking humanitarian supplies for the Tishreen university hospital in Latakia,” while the Defense Ministry confirmed the passenger list included her name.

There was some confusion regarding Glinka’s fate after the plane stopped over in Sochi for refueling. Several news outlets reported that she failed to board the flight after a security check.

As time passed, however, her mobile phone remained hopelessly switched off.

Eventually, Elena Pogrebizhskaya, author of a documentary film on Doctor Liza, wrote on her Facebook page: “Liza’s phone is out of coverage. She has not been in touch with anyone for 11 hours. This includes her family. Gleb [Glinka’s husband] says he wants to be alone… This is a nightmare.”

This was an additional shock to Russians on top of the death of the 64 members of the Alexandrov army choir.

“We were hoping for a miracle until the very last moment. And she was a miracle herself, a heaven-sent message of virtue,” head of the Presidential Council for Human Rights Mikhail Fedotov told Interfax.

“Dr. Lisa was the darling of all hearts for one simple reason. For many years, almost every day, she provided palliative medical care, feeding the homeless, giving them shelter and clothes. She took the sick and injured children from Donbass under a hail of bullets, so that they could get help in the best hospitals in Moscow and St Petersburg. She organized a shelter for children with amputated limbs, where they can undergo rehabilitation after treatment in hospital.

“To save the lives of others – this was her mission everywhere: in Russia, Donbass, Syria…” Fedotov added.

Born into a military family, which also includes a famous dietitian, Glinka graduated from the Russian National Research Medical Institute in Moscow to become a pediatric anesthesiologist. In 1986, she and her husband emigrated to the US, where she studied palliative care and graduated from Dartmouth. In America, she became involved with the work of hospices. Glinka later participated in the work of the First Moscow Hospice, after which the family moved to Ukraine for two years. In 1999, she founded the first hospice in Kiev.

In 2007, Glinka founded the ‘Fair Help’ fund in Moscow, which provides financial support and medical care to cancer patients, underprivileged families, the homeless, and others in need.

Last year, Dr. Liza organized an evacuation of children with heart conditions who were in need of urgent medical help, from Donbass to Russian hospitals. Parents and doctors told RT that due to the humanitarian crisis, it was impossible to treat them locally.

Earlier this month, Russian President Vladimir Putin gave out state awards for outstanding achievements in charity and human rights activities. Glinka was the winner of the first award, saying she would soon travel to Syria.

“We never know whether we come back alive, because the war – is hell on earth, and I know what I’m talking about. But we are confident that goodness, compassion and mercy are stronger than any weapon,” Glinka said, receiving the award.

Human rights activist Lyudmila Alexeyeva, founding member of the Moscow Helsinki Watch Group, said Glinka’s death was a huge loss.

“She was a saint, had enough strength for everyone, and was ready to help both the homeless and children,” Alexeyeva told TASS.

“It’s hard to speak about her, this is a huge loss, people like Dr. Liza are born once in a thousand years,” the human rights activist added. According to Alekseeva, Glinka was carrying a large amount of humanitarian aid to Syria.

Former human rights envoy Vladimir Lukin told TASS he was shocked by the tragedy.

“I am shocked. She was a wonderful person, she has done a lot of good things,” he said.

Those who never met Dr. Liza have also been deeply saddened by the tragic news.

“Eternal Memory # doktorLiza! Thank you for helping our children,” Aleksey Dyatlov wrote on Twitter.

“A human with a capital H, and a woman of action! Will never forget! Everlasting memory!” Aleksey Chenskykh wrote.

“Why is it that the best are the first to leave,” Nikita Kuznetsov asked.

People have been bringing flowers and candles to the office of the ‘Fair Help’ fund in Moscow.

“She was a miracle. She did things that most people thought were impossible to do. But that’s exactly what Elizaveta was all about. She worried about her colleagues to the point where she preferred to travel to hot spots herself,” Lana Zhurkina, Dr. Liza’s former colleague, told Life.ru.

A young mother in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk, whose child Elizaveta Glinka helped when it suffered a serious disease, shared her sorrow with journalists.

“My daughter was diagnosed with congenital heart defect, she had to be urgently operated on. We met her [Glinka] in Donetsk – she sent us to St. Petersburg, where the child was successfully operated on, on the second day of [its] life.”

“This is a terrible tragedy, she has helped so many children, so many adults, and provided hope and faith,” the woman said.

A Russian Defense Ministry medical facility is to be named after the renowned humanitarian activist, Deputy Minister of Defense Ruslan Tsalikov told journalists.

“The humanitarian cargo of the ‘Fair Help’ fund was sent by another aircraft. It is already in the airport of Khmeimim, and of course we will finish Elizaveta Glinka’s job,” Tsalikov added.

Meanwhile the head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, said that a children’s clinic in Grozny has been named after humanitarian activist Elizaveta Glinka.

“Dr. Liza devoted herself to the most noble cause – saving children,” Kadyrov wrote on Instagram. “She had a brilliant medical training and could have worked in some clinic, but she chose the hard path of helping those, who could not get help from elsewhere.”


Elizaveta Glinka

Chechen leader Kadyrov names hospital after killed Russian philanthropist Doctor Liza

Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov has given an order to rename the republic’s main children’s hospital after famous Russian doctor and charity activist Elizaveta Glinka, also known as Doctor Liza, who died in the plane crash off Sochi’s coast on Sunday.

“I have decided to name the republic’s Children’s Clinical Hospital in Grozny after Elizaveta Petrovna [Glinka]. [Head of the Alexandrov Ensemble] Valery Mikhailovich [Khalilov] has been posthumously awarded the Chechen Republic’s medal for merit. I am confident that the names of these great people will forever remain in Russia’s history,” Kadyrov wrote on his Instagram page.

He wrote that Elizaveta Glinka had dedicated herself to the most noble of all causes – saving children in places of war and conflict – and will forever remain in people’s memory because of that. He added that the death of the members of the Aleksandrov Ensemble was a tragic loss, as they have inspired Russia’s military to heroic deeds for many years.

Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu has ordered that one of Russia’s military hospitals be named after Elizaveta Glinka, the Defense Ministry’s press service reported on Monday. In the same statement, the Russian military promised to complete the philanthropist’s mission and pass on the aid that she had wanted to personally deliver to the hospital in Latakia, Syria. In fact, the aid has already arrived at the Russian Air Force base in Khmeimim on another flight.

The minister also ordered that the Moscow School of Music be named Valery Khalilov, the press service reported.

The Tu-154 airliner belonging to the Russian Defense Ministry crashed into sea off the coast near Sochi in the early hours of Sunday morning, killing 84 passengers and eight crew members. The passengers included 68 performers from the AleksandrovEnsemble, a famous Russian military orchestra and choir, including its director and conductor Valery Khalilov and nine journalists from three Russian TV channels.
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Elizaveta Glinka, often known in Russia by her nickname ‘Doctor Liza’, also died in the crash. Glinka was known as a selfless philanthropist, the founder of the first hospices in Russia and Ukraine, and the head of the NGO ‘Fair Help,’ which provides financial support and medical care to cancer patients, underprivileged families, the homeless, and others in need.

In 2015, Glinka organized the evacuation of many sick children to Russian hospitals from the unrecognized republics in Donbass.

Earlier this month, Russian President Vladimir Putin presented Glinka with the state’s top award for the year for her outstanding achievements in charity and human rights activities. At the ceremony, she promised that she would soon travel to Syria.

Short History of Creation of Ukraine and Donetsk-Krivorog Republics after the 1917 Coup d’Etat in Russia

On the 8th of December 2016, an analyst and blogger RoSsi BaRBeRa – one of the few that I read for their honest and direct approach to the world events – publish an article titled “Ukraine and the new bout for for-free [Euronews journalists are striking because of the refusal to count them as Russians]”.

In short, that article was describing an absurd situation after closing of the Ukrainian office of Euronews. Euronews closed down its Ukrainian-language office in France. It was created in 2011, and as with all the Euronews participating countries, Ukraine was to pay a certain license contribution towards running of their department. (Russian VGTRK, btw, owns 7% of shares of Euronews). After the 2014 “revolution” Ukraine decided that Europe owes Ukraine for the defence of the European values, and stopped paying. The Ukrainian department was then financed by Euronews from the common funds, but was not disbanded as Russophobia was in high demand. At the same time Euronews tried to get the money from Ukraine (€10 mill) through Ukrainian court system. To the European amazement, Ukraine did the same number as they did on the Russian Gazprom – the debtor started dictated conditions. Euronews haven’t got a cent. Now, in December 2016 Euronews shut down the Ukrainian department. And here comes the essence of the story:

The journalists from that department attempted first to apply to the Russian-language department (currently the most profitable in the Euronews consortium, with good salaries), but were refused. The reason from the management was this: Ukrainians do not have enough command of the Russian language and culture to work in the Russian department (after all, that’s what the rabid Ukrainian propaganda was all about all this time!). Ukrainian Euronews journalists – who only the day before were “defending Europe against Russian aggression” – suddenly did a U-turn and indignantly stated that they were all born in USSR, are from the same country, and anyway, Russian department employed Armenians and Belorussians, so why are Ukrainians discriminated. When it became clear that Euronews would not budge on the decision, they did another U-turn and started blaming, who else – Putin for not allowing them to work in the Russian department of Euronews… Curtain.

That was a pre-history, now comes the story…

As a post-scriptum to the article, RoSsi BaRBeRa posted the following image:

Translation: Ukro-patriots. Learn this by heart. In 1922 Ukraine ascended into USSR without Harkov, without Herson, without Odessa and Donetsk, without Lugansk, and, of course, without Crimea. Ukraine even didn’t have Lvov back then. All these lands Ukraine got while being a part of the “damned” USSR. For free.

The year in that image, as well as the facts, were challenged in one of the comments, to which RoSsi BaRBeRa wrote an extensive reply, which I find enlightening and am translating below with a few minor edits:

Everything is clear with the period of the Russian empire. No national republics existed before 1917. Further, after the revolution, on January 30, 1918 in Kharkov hotel “Metropol” there took place the 4th Regional Congress of Soviets of Workers’ Deputies which initially proclaimed the creation DKR (Donetsk – Krivoy Rog Republic). But it was not enough to declare it creation, it is needed be reaffirmed, acknowledged, and not only orally, but de facto. After all, a war was going on, and there was chaos in the country. Nearby to the self-proclaimed DKR was just as equally self-proclaimed UPR (Ukrainian People’s Republic) – a unit in the central part of the outskirts (Okraina – Ukraina) of the former Russian Empire, acting against the Soviet authorities.

And there lay the problem, because a few days before the official proclamation of the DKR, the UNR Central Council (with the center in Kiev) signed in Brest an anti-Russian treaty with Germany and Austria-Hungary, which allowed the entry of the Austro-German forces on its breakaway territory. Clearly they had no legal rights to do so, but in general they did 100 years ago exactly what they do now – lying down with pleasure and selling themselves to the West. At the same time, the UPR did not just ask the Germans for protection, but also gave away to the invaders of the West Polesie with the Belarusian people and Donbass itself, which the Ukrainian Parliament considered to be theirs, while the Petrograd and DKR itself considered themselves to be Soviet.

So, on one hand a unitarian Ukraine did not exist back then, but rather there were two conflicting with one another breakaway territories, and the other, at the beginning of March 1918 the Germans outright occupied Donbass, and without Russia, which later fought off the land from the enemy, they (Ukraine) would simply not come to pass. Let’s continue.

Next, by the decision of Germany and Austria-Hungary, the wishing to be Soviet leadership of the not yet manifested Donetsk republic, was deposed and a commissioner was appointed – Hetman Skoropadsky. While the occupied -both UNR and DKR they called for Ukrainian State. Later, having renamed it to the Ukrainian People’s Republic, they put in charge one of their own, the present “independence hero” Petliura, who under the auspices of the Germans, cut down all right, left and centre – both the partisans of Makhno, and the Reds, and the Whites, and the locals. After the defeat of Germany and its allies and the return of Donbass by the Soviet military into Russia, Stalin said: “There is no need and should be no separate Don-Kriv-Bass”, and with that he annexed this territory to the formed at that time united Ukrainian SSR. But they (Donbass) initially did not want it! What does this mean? The fact that even the earliest Donbass, at the end of accession in 1922 was also presented the UkSSR (Ukraine) for free. Presented by Russia. Of which the image above speaks. Before the USSR, Ukraine did not have those territories. Just like Ukraine itself did not exist. A couple of months under the German occupation does not count.

Perhaps you are right in that it made sense to supplement the information in the picture that, Donbass was given to Ukraine by Russia in 1919, not in 1922, and I admit it, but this does not change the essence at hand.

Next, on March 10, 1919 3rd Congress of Soviets of the UkSSR took place in Kharkov, which declared the establishment of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) as an independent state, the draft Constitution of the UkSSR was adopted. The congress approved the policy of the Ukrainian government on the comprehensive strengthening of relations with Soviet Russia. Thus, Ukraine acceded to the wishes of the other independent republics of the Soviets on the establishment of a union with them. And declared desire to become part of Russia. In their desires, they indicated that they consider their own administrative boundaries wherever Ukrainians lived – in Kiev, Kherson, Podolia, Volyn, Kharkov, Poltava, Chernigov, Ekaterinoslav and Tauride areas. But it’s all wishing on paper, signed against the backdrop of a civil war and while the Soviet Russian military advanced into Ukraine returning native Russian land. At that time, the civil war in Ukraine was rapidly taking turn to our advantage (in favour of the Reds), and October 11, 1919 Red Army began the decisive offensive against Denikin Red – or in fact, the third attempt to establish the Bolshevik rule on the territory of the former Russian Empire outskirts (okrainas). On December 12th, Soviet troops entered Kharkov, on December 16 – Kiev, on February 7, 1920 – Odessa. Eastern Ukraine is almost completely taken over by the Bolsheviks at the end of December 1919, the central and right-bank Ukraine – by the beginning of 1920.

And only then began the territorial disputes of the Ukrainian SSR and the South-East of Russia. When liberated by Soviet warriors Ukraine, habitually wanted more for themselves, their appetite increased and raised the question of creation of their own Don province, in order to include it in the part of the Donets Coal Basin, which was a part of the Don region of Russia, and at the same time – Taganrog. However, since this issue was discussed in closed circles and without the consent of the administration of the Don Region, on the 17th of January 1920, Donetsk Revolutionary Governorship (Gubrevkom) of the city of Lugansk ordered “until the economic territory of the Donetsk province and the proper distribution of the province areas is clarified, to TEMPORARILY approve … 11 administrative districts that make up the Donetsk province as described by UkSSR” including there also the territory of the Shakhty district – White-Kalitvensky, Bokovo-Hrustal’nyj, Alexander-Grushevsky areas and individual settlements of the Taganrog district.

I stress, temporarily. As long as the civil war continues.

But be that as it may, in April 1920, at the suggestion of the CPC of Ukraine and Presidium Council decided to establish the Donetsk province (governorship) of Ukraine from the parts of Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav provinces and regions of the Don Cossacks. From Ekaterinoslav province of Russia, Ukraine entirely got Bahmutskiy, Lugansk and Mariupol counties, and from the area of ​​the Don Cossacks, again – Russian – all the Taganrog district, the villages of the district of Donetsk (Gundorovskaya, Kamensky, Kalitvenskaya, Ust-Belaya Kalitva). Lugansk became the centre of Donetsk province.

And this is another “gift” to Ukraine from Russia. But I say it again, it was initially a temporary one.

But in general, there is a visual infographics of the “gifts” by Russia to its Ukrainian republic.

(Dates:
20th November 1917 (proclamation of UPR in Kiev) -> 12th December 1917 (proclamation of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic in Harkov) -> 1st November 1918 (proclamation of Western-Ukrainian People’s Republic in Lvov) -> 1919 (Creation of Ukrainian SSR, Western territories fall under Polish control) ->
1939 (Eastern Galicia becomes part of UkSSR) -> 1940 (Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia become part of Ukraine) -> 1945 (Zakarpatie [Trans-Carpathia] becomes part of Ukraine) -> 1954 (Crimea is transferred into UkSSR)

Another map, is the sate of the South-Russian republics by 1917-1918:

ДКР (DKR) – Donetsk-Krivorozhje Republic
УНР (UPR) – Ukrainian People’s Republic
КРЫМ – Crimean Republic
ОДЕССА – Odessa Republic

Stealing Russian Treasure: Amsterdam Court Gives Crimean Scythian Gold to Kiev (a Lada Ray Reblog)

Reblogging Lada Ray article Stealing Russian Treasure: Amsterdam Court Gives Crimean Scythian Gold to Kiev. The Scythian gold is the property of the Crimean Museums, so what the Amsterdam court sanctioned is, indeed, a theft.

The Court in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, has made a decision that Scythian gold, which was on loan from the Crimean museums to the Dutch museums in 2013-14, belongs to Ukraine. The gold has been taken out of Dutch museums and shipped off to an unknown location in 2014, after Crimea voted to re-join Russia.

The story of the Scythian Gold (Zoloto Skifov), with pics, in my video, Crimea Scythian Gold/ MH17/ Russian Sanctions: Global Consequences (LadaRayLive 1):

Natalya Poklonskaya, ex-Attorney General of Crimea and Russian Duma Deputy, called the Amsterdam decision a thievery. She promised the decision would be appealed by the Crimean museums.

Natalya Poklonskaya: ‘Amsterdam court is hardly impartial. This illegal decision will be contested. It’s comparable to a highway robbery.

The famous Zoloto Skifov – Scythian Gold – was discovered in 19th century by the Russian archeologists in Russian Crimea.

It has nothing to do with the present day Kiev junta and today’s ukro-nazi ‘Ukraine,’ which denies any connection to Russia. In 19th century, when the gold was dicovered, Crimea was a part of Russia. Therefore, the decision clearly has no connection to fairness and law. It is a politicized act, designed to yet again punish Russia.

The only goal such actions by the Netherlands achieve is creating an Iron Curtain and putting a damper on any sort of cultural and museum exchanges. I can’t imagine Russians ever allowing their treasures out of the country again, under such circumstances.

But I’ll tell you more: the fact that the decision has suddenly passed now – after over 2 years of delays – has the fingerprints of Soros, Obama, Clinton, Merkel, Holande and the entire crumbling neo-liberal NWO clique all over. The Scythian Gold number is one of their last-ditch, desperate, efforts to create an irreconcilable rift between Russia and various Western countries.

The same is done in a hurry by Obama/Soros/Clinton in the US. The US elites are doing everything to create as many obstacles as possible for the future US president’s attempts to work with Russia. As I predicted in EARTH SHIFT REPORT 16: US ELECTIONS & WHAT WILL HAPPEN AFTER, the goal is to tie up Trump and to put him in a straight jacket of legal traps and time-bombs, as well as distrust and sour grapes, so he would not be able to improve US-Russia relations by much, despite his best efforts (look for my upcoming Trump/Electoral College prediction video for more!).

The same process is underway in the EU. But the only thing they will be able to achieve is prolonging the agony of the Western NWO project.

BREAKING! Trump Prepares to Drop Ukraine: Operation Poroshenko Dump. The Song Flashmob Marathon in Ukraine, Moldavia and Russia. Reblog from Lada Ray

My heart is singing at these news, especially at the solidarity the people of the Russian World are showing in the face of intimidation and outright Fascism.

Re-publishing a larger porting of this Lada Ray report. Follow the link below for the complete material with links and videos:
https://futuristrendcast.wordpress.com/2016/12/04/breaking-trump-prepares-to-drop-ukraine-operation-poroshenko-dump/

My Ukraine predictions are beginning to spectacularly come true!

As my followers know, I have predicted since the very beginning of 2014 that between 2016 and 2018 US and EU will dump Ukraine, albeit slowly. More than once I used the words ‘they’ll throw Ukraine out as a squeezed-out lemon.’ I also predicted that between 2016 and 2018 Ukraine will turn back to Russia, but only after Ukraine’s economy is destroyed.

The economy has been destroyed by the Kiev junta’s actions and by those oligarchs and ukro-nazis who have been stealing what little is left of Ukraine’s former riches.

The ongoing “Russian World” song flash mobs is rolling through Ukraine like wildfire. In these flash mobs, organized at the train and bus stations, people sing their favorite Russian songs. The song flash mob has spread to Russia, where people sing Ukrainian songs, to show their love and solidarity, and to Kishinev, Moldova, where people have beautifully sang famous Soviet songs, chanting “Moldova, Ukraine, Russia – together.” The Kishinev flash mob so far has been the largest and longest, with a true mini-concert organized at the train station. You can find several first song flash mobs here:

The song flash mob marathon continues, and it has already come to Siberia, Crimea, Nikolaev and Donbass. More former Soviet republics are expected to join in soon. The idea of this flash mob is simply spectacular. In fact, I like it so much that I decided to re-post some of the videos of the song flash mobs on my YT channel. Stay tuned for that.

As per my 2014 prediction, the people are awakening, they are slowly but surely losing their fear of ukro-nazis and violent Ukraine oligarchs. They are remembering their true roots, despite the mass brainwashing attempts of the past 20, and especially last 3, years.

The soft and peaceful song flash mob protests have shown where the affinities and allegiances of the population residing in Ukraine and Moldova really lie. These flash mobs bring hope and confidence that there is a better tomorrow. And this is just the beginning!

It is happening per my other original prediction: Ukraine citizens have to wake up and start acting themselves. Waiting for someone else to come and save them won’t work.

The Kiev regime, installed in 2014 by the US and EU, is on its last legs. By 2017 we will see HUGE, HUGE changes beginning to manifest in Ukraine. As I also predicted, Russia has been doing everything to keep Ukraine intact. But the trick is that it has to be a Russia-friendly territory. I also predicted that whether it would end up as a very loose confederation or federation, or whether it will simply become a part of Russia, the word ‘Ukraine’ won’t be used in 10 years time (or less). The territory that will emerge out of this chaos will bear a different name(s).

Also, per my original 2014 prediction: Putin’s slow, purposeful and peaceful remolding of the situation is succeeding. After the US/EU successfully subverted Ukraine, the plan was to turn the situation around carefully and peacefully, in such a way as not to antagonize the masses of the population, preserving as many Ukrainian lives and as much Ukrainian industry as possible.

The key to success is the remolding done asymmetrically and internationally. In this delicate and volatile situation, it is the butterfly effect that works wonders. Every seemingly unrelated global move by Russia has influenced the outcome in Ukraine. It is a masterful surgical intervention, which is subtle and delicate, yet effective.

Every peace of the puzzle has to fall into place. US and EU neo-con/neo-liberal NWO agenda has failed. They overshot and overestimated their capability. You can’t go point-blank against Russia – The Great Balancer, and expect to get away with it. Napoleon and Hitler tried…

This hybrid 4D war isn’t like any war fought before. But it’s still a war and the result will be the same. Every Russian move in Syria and the Middle East; Putin’s recent BRICS, Japan, China, India and Central Asia deals; Turkish Stream and Nord Stream 2; the Crimean Kerch Bridge and the railroad to bypass Ukraine; new pro-Russian presidents in Moldova and Bulgaria and anti-establishment revolts in the EU – all these have worked towards the shift in Ukraine. The election of Trump and Democrats suffering a staggering defeat in these US elections seal the deal.

OPERATION POROSHENKO DUMP

Please recall that in 2014 I also said that only Russia will be able to restore the territory we now call Ukraine. Only Russia can resurrect its industry and economy. Neither EU nor US are either capable or interested in doing so.

This prediction of mine is also materializing. US can’t wait to dump Ukraine. The only thing both EU and US need is a way to save face.

Trump’s election made it natural and logical to shift the foreign policy of the US in such a way as to save face and get out of the rotten Ukraine deal. But additional push was required. That’s how “Operation Poroshenko Dump” was born. Incidentally, this is my own title no idea what the US calls it.

Here’s the scoop. A Ukraine Rada deputy turned whistleblower, Alexandr Onischenko, escaped to London. In his pocket he carried damning evidence against Ukraine president and oligarch Petr Poroshenko. Below is Onischenko’s exclusive live interview with Russia24 channel during talk show 60 Minutes.

Per Onischenko, he was recently recruited by US to record compromising conversations within Ukraine’s corridors of power.

(LR: Please note that Onischenko is far from being above board: he himself got rich assisting Poroshenko’s corruption and illegal schemes.)

On Poroshenko’s behalf, he delivered cash to buy votes of Rada deputies. This was done routinely, as a matter of course. Onischenko says that there were many laws and government appointments which passed Rada only because Poroshenko bought votes. Each deputy was paid amounts commensurate with their weight and popularity. The votes were bought to remove from important state posts anyone who wasn’t Poroshenko’s men and to install those Poroshenko had in his pocket. This included the post of Prime Minister, Attorney General and Rada Speaker.

Onischenko confirmed that if Poroshenko really wanted to stop the war in Donbass, he could do so very easily, by ordering Rada to vote in a specific way. But Poroshenko wants war in Donbass because he is a ‘greedy bastard’ (there were a few strong words used throughout). He makes huge profit from the war and confrontation.

(LR: Poroshenko owns the heavy industry brand Lenin’s Forge. He kept the name of this globally recognised plant, built by the USSR, despite ban on Soviet symbolism in Ukraine. The plant makes much of the tanks and weapons that kill the people of Donetsk and Lugansk. Poroshenko made a killing during this civil war: his fortune exploded by 7-fold and more during the period between 2014 and 2016, making him a billionaire.)

Onischenko said that IMF, US and EU loans were stolen and split up between Poroshenko and those in power, as soon as they were disbursed.

Onischenko described how Poroshenko, abusing his post as president of Ukraine, engaged in racketeering and mafia tactics to squeeze other oligarchs. The example given is that of Renat Akhmetov. Poroshenko gave order to start a media smear campaign against Akhmetov’s company. Armed thugs were sent to his plants, where they intimidated and beat up managers; several deaths were reported. Then Poroshenko demanded money. Akhmetov ended up paying him $200 million. After that, smear campaigns and attacks against Akhmetov properties ended.

(LR: Renat Akhmetov once was the richest oligarch in Ukraine, who was Yanukovich’s handler. Akhmetov, much like the rest of Ukraine oligarchs, lost a lot after 2014 coup. Poroshenko is the only oligarch who made a killing. Same is true for ex-PM Yatsenyuk, who simply stole a cool billion dollars. Per data I received, Yatsenyuk now resides in the US. He purchased two dosen (24) luxury condos and mansions throughout the US. More in EARTH SHIFT REPORT 3: OLIGARCH WARS).

Poroshenko did similar numbers on other oligarchs. Alexandr Onischenko recorded a number of such secret negotiations and conversations conducted in Poroshenko’s office.

Spy stuff: the recorder was located in his wrist watch. He passed all the recordings and his additional testimony to the US Department of Justice. It has been announced that the official investigation into Poroshenko and Rada has begun.

Lada Ray: Poroshenko and his cronies immediately branded Alexandr Onischenko ‘Putin’s agent.’ Onischenko has taken this very badly and got nervous, indignantly responding to the effect that he is an ‘honest crook’ and, if anything, ‘he is a US agent’ (lol).

Incidentally, Onischenko mentioned that he has been friendly with Donald Trump. Whether it’s true or just his fantasy is another story.

Again, let me stress that Onischenko is just as guilty as the rest of them. He was the one who participated in many of these schemes and who personally delivered million dollar bribes to Rada deputies. Just like the rest of these criminals, he got rich off Ukraine people’s misfortune.

But he has been a good Trojan Horse inside Ukraine junta, fulfilling his role admirably. The fact that he was recruited as a spy means that US is getting ready to dump Poroshenko. In fact, in Ukraine there is more and more talk that Poroshenko should be hung for his crimes.

Trump and the new people who come with him need solid evidence to save the US face and justify what Trump is preparing to do in 2017: dump Ukraine as a bad dream. Trump will make a deal with Putin. The release of Ukraine out of USA’s clutches will be Trump’s peace offering to Russia.

One of the reasons to do so is to get on a better side of Russia. But there is another: USA is financially in a much worse situation than being admitted; militarily and politically it is stretched too thin. US needs to consolidate its resources. USA under Trump is gearing towards dropping the non-performing ‘assets’ such as Ukraine. Hence dropping the Kiev junta and Poroshenko after supposedly finding out how corrupt he and his regime are (as if it wasn’t clear from the start). After all, Ukraine failed to fulfill its purpose: it didn’t become a convincing anti-Russia, as Soros, Nuland and the rest intended.

https://futuristrendcast.wordpress.com/2016/12/04/breaking-trump-prepares-to-drop-ukraine-operation-poroshenko-dump/

Ukraine Events Heating up and Accelerating – Newsflash Reblog

Below I am reblogging beginnings of three of the latest Lada Rey articles, relaying the latest developments from Ukraine. Please follow the links to read the articles in full!

Ukraine Events Heating up and Accelerating

Dear friends,

I thought this would be a great time to summarize some news coming in from Ukraine and from other places.

The events in Ukraine are beginning to heat up and manifest in an accelerated fashion. The Kiev junta and oligarchs are getting nervous and the people are beginning to awaken. At the same time, the ukro-nazi element is also activating. My prediction about Ukraine turning around between 2016 and 2018 is beginning to materialize, but unfortunately, with a lot of hardship for the population. The problem is, also per my prediction, that the population has to go through this hardship and the economy has to get destroyed, in order for the people to awaken and start acting.

The events are developing very swiftly: yesterday ex-president Viktor Yanukovich testified in the trial against the Berkut police. Berkut is accused of killing a number of activists during the Kiev Maidan. Kiev tried very hard to prevent this testimonial and the hearing was sabotaged by Ukraine’s ministry of interior and ukro-nazi thugs. But it did happen, with some scandalous revelations. Yanukovich promises more to come.

More high-level Ukraine operatives, preparing to blow up military targets, were arrested in Crimea. To date, Russian FSB neutralized a huge network of spies and terrorists, however, the work continues.

Not being able to cause real damage in Crimea and to somehow get back at Russia, Kiev kidnapped two Russian servicemen of Ukrainian origin from Crimea. The story is a bit like a thriller and I’ll talk about it as well.

After all the failures, no doubt in an attempt to save face and show how tough they are, in the beginning of December, Kiev threatens to do missile launches near Crimea and breaching the Russian airspace, which are bound to generate a danger for the civilian aircraft and tourism. MH17 comes to mind, as well as the 2001 catastrophe when Ukraine training missile shot down Russian civilian plane flying from Israel, killing all passengers on board. Kiev never issued a clear admission of its responsibility. Most recently, Kiev threatened civilian aircraft from Belarus with being shot down (I’ll talk about all this in the upcoming video).

They are indeed accelerating, for better or worse, though it does look like it will get even darker before the dawn comes…


Beautiful Russian-Soviet Song Flash Mobs Unite Russians and Ukrainians Against Kiev Junta Hatred

Since 2014 Kiev junta banned Russian language during school classes. Now every teacher is mandated to speak only Ukrainian in class, and so are students. In 2014 and 2015 the historic symbolism uniting Russia and Ukraine was banned. Many historic monuments were destroyed throughout Ukraine as well. Ukro-nazi thugs from the ‘right sector’ Svoboda and various nazi battalions brutally beat up and even killed those who tried to resist. Among things banned in Ukraine have been the Victory Banner (symbol of the WWII Victory), names of cities and streets. They succeeded in renaming one of the largest cities in Ukraine from Dnepropetrovsk to Dnepr. They tried to rename Odessa to Kotsyubeevsk [Nemo’s note: something that, from Ukro-Nazi jargon can be translated as “kill’da’Russians”] (if you can believe it), but met with staunch resistance from Odessans, which made them back off.

The newest thing the Kiev junta is doing is banning Russian language during school breaks. Teachers caught speaking Russian will be fired.

In the atmosphere of the oppression, the people are finding ways to resist in a beautiful and inspiring way, by performing Russian-Soviet songs at train stations.

It began on November 13 in Zaporozhye, the large industrial city in Eastern Ukraine, located next to Donbass. The city of Zaporozhye is located in the very center of the ancestral Zaporozhskie Cossack territories. Zaporozhye means basically ‘beyond the white waters.’ It is located on the banks of the river Dnepr and it is the white waters of the river that gave it its name. The city was founded by the Russian tsars; in 1930s it became the center of the Soviet industrialization. It is the sight of the famous symbol of the Soviet industrialization DneproGes (Dnepr Hydroelectric Station). It is also the home to the metallurgical giant Zaporozhstal’ (Zaporozhye Metal Plant). Europe’s largest nuclear power plant is also built here. I again want to stress that everything that has been built in Zaporozhye was built by either the Russian Empire or the USSR. During its 25 years of ‘independence’ Ukraine built nothing of significance. On the contrary, much was ruined and stolen.

The first flash mob at the Zaporozhye Train Station sang the song from the hit Soviet film, The Spring on River Street, 1956. The Spring on River Street is a romantic comedy about a worker from Zaporozhstal’ and a young teacher, fresh out of college. The song is called, My Native Street. This song is sort of unofficial anthem of Zaporozhye.

I have to say that after I heard this flash mob several days ago I can’t stop humming this song, which I’ve always loved.

Flash mob at Zaporozhye Train Station, November 2016. Russian-Soviet song: My Native Street:


Kiev Tries to Ban Russian Language – Ukrainians Respond with Russian Song Katyusha

In Beautiful Russian-Soviet Song Flash Mobs, I showed you how people in Zaporozhie, Kharkov, Odessa and Moscow countered the vicious hatred emanating from Kiev junta, and how they said no to repressions against Russian language in Ukraine.

The new additional data coming in on the repressions against Russian language: Kiev Rada will be voting on the new law, which is supposed to limit Russian language programming on TV and radio to 5%. Already, most Russian films, all Russian-languge TV/radio stations and publications are banned in Ukraine, except the openly anti-Putin and anti-Russian ones.

After this, is it any wonder that normal people are leaving Ukraine by millions? The problem with that is: if everyone normal leaves, who will be left? Only imbeciles, sheeple and low-lives? This, unfortunately, is a very worrying ongoing development in Ukraine. For more read: Mass Migration: What Happens if a Country Gains or Loses its Life Force? (US, EU, Russia, China, Ukraine).

There is another radical ukro-nazi proposal awaiting a vote in the Rada. It calls for the Russian speakers who always resided in Ukraine to be denied citizenship and the right to education. Ukraine is following in the footsteps of Latvia and Estonia, the euro-fascist members of the EU, where millions of Russian-speakers are denied citizenship and given a label of ‘non-citizens.’ Who needs Hitler…

Ukraine celebrated its independence – from what?

Rostislav Ischenko wrote an article (in Russian) “Lost Independence”, about the recently celebrated in Kiev Independence day. I want to start this post with a translation of a short fragment from that article, followed by a report from Donbass – how Poroshenko’s words that he “loves Donbass” manifest into mortar shells falling onto people’s heads.

Ukraine celebrates the 25th anniversary of its independence. Independence from what?

From the oil of Tyumen and Yamal gas, from Yakutia diamonds, and from gold of Kolyma, from the world’s largest reservoir of fresh water – Lake Baikal, and from the incalculable riches of the Arctic shelf. From all this, and many other things has Ukraine been independent for the last twenty-five years. But two and a half years of Poroshenko’s reign achieved new accomplishments. Now Ukraine is also independent from Crimea with its unique climatic conditions, and from Donbass – two regions which gave more than 30% overall and nearly half of foreign exchange earnings to the budget.

Over these two and a half years Ukraine got independent of several millions of its citizens. Optimists say that of five, the pessimists – that of fifteen. Even during the Great Patriotic War, Ukraine was “freed” from Ukrainians with lower rates. So there are things in which Ukrainians can be more effective than Germans and their allies, who built a “united Europe” in the first half of the twentieth century. Back then, too, the Europeans wanted to see Ukraine in Europe, and neither did they promise that the Ukrainians would get there together with Ukraine. As a result, the country was cleared of 20% of its population over the three years [of Nazi-German occupation]. The current government cleared it by 25% over two and a half years.

At this rate, by 2025 Ukraine will become independent of its entire population. Presumably complete happiness will then come. No opposition. No dissatisfied. Only the eternal peace, reconciling the right and left, the Russian-speaking and the Surzhik-speaking, “Eurointegrationalists” and Eurasians, Orthodox and Uniate, rainbowy fanatics of homosexual love and the harsh traditionalists.

All this happened because first of all Ukraine got independent from common sense, having become a country of victorious absurdity already in the beginning of 1992. Opponents of exit from the USSR accounted for the majority of the population. They controlled the parliament. Executive power was so diligent and so quick to execute commands of the Union center (even before they were given) that Ukraine in the years of perestroika, was called a “stagnation reserve”, being contrasted with the “democratic Belarus”, in which social life was flourishing.

Ischenko’s conclusion is that Ukraine was a failed state from day 1 – because its elites were creating the state for their own enrichment and not for the benefit of the population, and now, when there is nothing left to plunder they are looking towards either US, EU or Russia to fix their problems:

But how well it all began. The largest, bigger than the Russian, European army, huge arsenals of the most modern weapons, half of the strategic aviation of the USSR, the third in the world (after Russia and the US) nuclear arsenal. 40% of the Union’s machine-building industry, about 50% of the Union’s Agriculture, 60% of the Union’s GDP. Ports, both commercial and military fleet, gas pipeline system, higher education institutions and world-famous scientific schools, highly qualified workforce and population, which ranked first in Europe in terms of education, social welfare, health care.

It seemed like it would never end. And yet, just 25 years later – the emptiness, catastrophe.

Now we say that the state has not materialised. But it didn’t happen now. It did not materialise from the first moment and hasn’t been a valid state for even a minute. Because, if the Ukrainian state manifested, at least at one point of its existence, it would never have reached such a life as now.

A state that somebody needs can’t not manifest. But a Ukrainian state is not even needed by the Ukrainian Nazis. They come as scavengers upon an already dead carcass, to have time to grab a piece of rotting flesh, and die next to the remains of Ukraine. For the Nazis, too, can not exist without a state. But they are finishing it off as they have nothing constructive to offer – in comparison with the program of the oligarchic elite, which they are coming to replace – except for “take everything and divide”, while dividing it in a new way.

However, there is nothing left to divide.

Meanwhile, the sad state of things in the East – how people of Donbass survive Poroshenko’s “love”. Watch the following documentary fragment of Vesti from 28th of August 2016, translated by me:

Lada Ray Report: Putin’s visit to Slovenia, Union of Southern Slavs and Russia (reblog)

This Lada Ray’s report, Putin’s visit to Slovenia, Union of Southern Slavs and Russia talks about the recent visit by the Russian President, Vladimir Putin, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the tragic events of WWI, remembered through the Russian chapel.

I do urge my readers to go and read the full report, but in this re-blog, I’d like to concentrate on its second half – the history, language and ties of Slovenia…


Another striking point: Slovenia stands for dialogue and peaceful resolution of all outstanding issues and disputes.

It’s important to correctly understand certain things about Slovenia, Serbia and former Yugoslavia

First, let’s remember this: in the Balkans and elsewhere, one’s attitude towards Russia is connected closely with one’s attitude towards Serbia. If Serbia is perceived as an enemy and/or a rogue state, then Russia is likely perceived as at least not a friend – and vice versa.

Slovenia is the only early breakaway former part of Yugoslavia that never was involved in an armed conflict with Serbs, as opposed to Bosnia and Croatia, plus Kosovo. Conversely, Macedonia (FYRM) and Montenegro (Chernogoria) were split from Serbia later, in order to further weaken it. The collective West, at the time spearheaded by Bill Clinton, correctly perceived that the weakening of Serbia meant by default the handicapping of Russia.

Slovenia is a Slavic-populated country – as attested by its name; the language spoken is Slovenian (Slovene).

In truth, the differences between Yugoslav languages are minor and they really should be considered dialects of the same South-Slavic (aka, Yugoslav) tongue. The differences in many cases are akin to the degree of closeness of the Russian – Belorussian language relationship. In other words, it’s even closer than Russian – Ukrainian language relationship. And even Ukrainian, in my professional opinion as a linguist and native language carrier of both, should be considered a dialect. Read about that in Discovering The Real Belarus and in Earth Shift Reports: ESR2: Ukraine Truth, Lies & Future Hope and ERS6: Ukraine – New Khazarian Khaganate.

Southern Slavic languages are also very close to Russian. As an example, the name of the capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana, doesn’t really need a translation. Without knowing the language, I can tell you that it is very close to the Russian word lyubov’, which means love. Therefore, Ljubljana is likely translated as ‘the city of love,’ or perhaps, ‘the beloved place/city.’

Incidentally, those with a keen eye will recognize the same root ‘lyub’ in the English love. This again attests to something I often stress: we are ALL ONE, we all come from the same root, and all these barriers – political, military or linguistic – are artificial! Read more in Forbidden History: Are Scandinavians Slavs? and under Category: Forbidden Linguistics.

Historically, Slovenia is arguably the most ‘Westernized’ of all Yugoslavia and the closest to Austria and Hungary, having been a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a result of religious conversion, the population is presently primarily Catholic.

As it so often happened in history, the difference in religion is what served as the foreign-induced pretext for the ’90s civil wars of Orthodox Serbs vs. Catholic Croats & Muslim Bosnians/ Kosovo Albanians. US/EU needed to breakup Yugoslavia pronto while Russia was at her weakest – and they succeeded admirably. Therefore, it is remarkable that Slovenia actually remained neutral through the ’90s war and it attests to the peaceful character and wisdom of the residents (of course it helps that geographically Slovenia is furthest removed from Serbia).

After the war ended and hot heads cooled down, those who retained reason and common sense began to question the war and resulting artificial separation. It’s much harder for Serbia, Bosnia and Croatia to come around in relation to each other, due to a deep-running resentment and mistrust. Kosovo situation is even worse: it is regarded in Serbia as an outright theft and humiliation. Of course, this division, resulting in lack of sovereignty and animosity was the end target of then US president Clinton and the globalist West.

The ‘divide and conquer’ worked in Yugoslavia’s case all too well. There is never such thing as one side exclusively being guilty of all sins. Since the ’90s, Serbia and Serbs were exclusively vilified, while the atrocities of Croats, Bosnians and Kosovo Albanians were ignored or whitewashed. Moreover, the barbaric NATO bombings of Serbia were presented as a great triumph of Western democracy against evil dictatorship.

The ultimate goal was to humiliate and suppress Serbia so it couldn’t continue being the heart of undesirable sovereignty in the middle of the EU. This goal was achieved. And here I have to tell you the truth, which will be hard for the Serbs to hear. The reason this goal was achieved so easily and so handily is because Serbs ALLOWED it to be achieved. By taking the foreign bait of inter-confessional conflict and civil war they opened an entry point for NATO to tear the country apart. If they were wiser and acted in such a way that would quell the conflict, the degree of the disaster we are observing today could have been diminished in big part.

As a stark contrast to that catastrophic mistake, let’s recall how Russia and Putin had handled the situation with the late ’90s – early 2000s Chechen war. Later in 2008, Russia wisely managed the situation with S.Ossetia/Georgia conflict. And the latest: how differently Russia and Putin are handling the situation in Ukraine! As you know, I predicted from the start of 2014 that Russia would never send troops to Ukraine and that Russia would, conversely, concentrate on peacefully remolding the situation, on turning it around carefully and slowly to de-escalate both regional conflict and WWIII potentiality. As we see, the situation has developed, and continues developing, exactly as predicted. (As always, read PREDICTIONS on top bar).

Therefore, the unwise actions of both sides in the ’90s Balkans conflict caused a rift from which it would take long to recover. However, those parts of Yugoslavia that don’t have much bad blood between themselves have started waking up.

We’ve seen the attempts to reach out to Russia and protest NATO and EU expansion in Macedonia and Montenegro – so far, squashed by the West.

I’ve noticed that for years Slovenia’s government and parliament quietly invited speakers and advisors who were anti-US/West establishment and steadily grew relations with Russia. As I said, Slovenia is the kind of country that will try to get along with everyone. They won’t fight and protest so much as they’ll try to quietly get where they want to be, while others are distracted by fighting. Kinda reminds me of how Zakarpatie (Transcarpathia) Rusins behave, who are presently under Kiev, but want to secede. Incidentally, both were for centuries under Austria-Hungary, so they learned to work quietly for fear of suppression.

Slovenia is the kind of country that is technically a part of EU and NATO, but at the same time it tries to develop and maintain a good relationship with Russia. This is a necessary job – we do desperately need the ‘bridge-countries’ that would help develop and keep connections between Russia and West, despite the destructive forces currently at work in the EU and West in general. Countries like Slovenia keep a small flame alive, protecting it from the raging hurricane and reminding those who would listen that there is another way. Slovenia tries to gently remind Europeans that if the continuing foreign-induced conflict between EU and Russia were to be replaced with cooperation, everyone would win. They aren’t the only ones. Austria tried to do the same, Czech president did as well, while being isolated by his own parliament and government, Hungarian PM Orban tried…

But as I wrote many times before, the crumbling US Empire simply cannot afford Russia and European countries working peacefully and cooperatively together. The artificially built new Iron Curtain is in the works, using the sell-out Poland, Romania and the Baltics, through NATO expansion and BMDS in Eastern Europe.

It’s the Grand Chess Game, however. Putin’s Slovenia visit is one of Russia’s counter-moves. Slovenia sees Russia getting stronger, while EU and US are busy with their own problems. Therefore, Slovenia can make a move of her own. It’s a small and meek move, but it’s an affirmation of a certain allegiance and a nod to the historic memory.

All in all, this is a very good start!

In addition, it’s important to remember that Russians routinely helped ‘brothers’ Slavs, including Slovenians, during several previous great wars. This includes liberating many of the Slavic and Orthodox ‘brothers’ in the Balkans and Eastern/Southern Europe from the Ottoman Empire yoke and helping them during WWI and WWII. The liberation list is very long and includes Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and all of Yugoslavia, including of course, Serbia and Slovenia. There indeed are many Russians who fell in the Balkans.

If there are readers from those parts, I invite them to share their experiences in the comments! TRUTH ONLY accepted!

On another note, Slovenia, as much of the former Yugoslavia, has magnificently beautiful nature, with pristine forests, mountains, some parts of ex-Yugoslavia also have a lovely sea shore. I hope it stays that way!

PREDICTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS:

The Union of Southern Slavs & Russia

It is my strong opinion that the Yugoslavs (the word means ‘Southern Slavs’) need to unite in one country, based on mutually respectful, cooperative principles. They need to use wisdom and reason – not their pride and overinflated egos, while doing so. Failing that, they’ll always be a yo-yo in someone’s unscrupulous hands, ready to be manipulated on moment’s notice.

Uniting is the only way for them to re-gain sovereignty and to be strong enough to withstand foreign pressure and invasions. Incidentally, this South-Slavic/Balkan Union should include Bulgaria. The inclusion of Greece, plus possibly Cyprus (as non-Slavic, but Orthodox countries), is a long shot; but if that were to happen, it would be greatly beneficial for both Greece and all Yugoslavs.

This is what Serbia tried to do: create a union of Southern Slavs. However, for this union to be lasting, Serbs and others have to tuck away their egos and pride and work together for the greater good of all.

The weakness of the Balkans is that it doesn’t have a border with Russia. If it did, history, as we know it, would have been very different… WWI and Yugoslavia ’90s bombings may have never happened. The Russian Empire attempted to establish a friendly corridor to the Balkans via creating from scratch in the 19th century what was thought of back then as ‘friendly’ Romania, having liberated that area from the Ottomans. However, it didn’t take long for Romania to get seduced by the UK, turning it into a problem rather than part of the solution. Therefore, the larger the Union, the more stable it will be. When these little countries are apart they are easy pickings for predators.

If such union of Southern Slavs is created, it would serve as powerful ADDITIONAL counterweight to NWO/globalists, US and EU. It would become a great help for Russia’s global rebalancing efforts. By default, it would mean the strengthening of Russia.

Meanwhile, Russia would also be in much better position to help the Southern Slavic Union to defend itself and to develop its economy. For instance, South Stream pipeline project would be automatically revived as then the YugoSlavic Union, not EU or US, would be deciding whether it should go through Bulgaria or not.

Eventually, Eurasian Union can and should be expanded to include the Southern Slavic Union.

But this is exactly what globalists are afraid of and this is exactly why they want to keep Balkans broken up into small parts.

People can make a difference by uniting, setting aside their old grudges and creating a new reality. I’ve more than once seen my ideas and recommendations materialize into reality, after I voiced them out on FT or in Earth Shift Report.

LADA RAY REPORT: End of Olympics? Plot to Remove Russia from International Sports Revealed (reblog)

With the highly-politices Rio Olympics approaching, it is imperative to know what is happening around it, how it is used as a weapon against Russia and Blazil (BRICS). All this is covered in Lada Ray’s excellent extensive report

LADA RAY REPORT: End of Olympics? Plot to Remove Russia from International Sports Revealed

Below is the beginning of it:

Bad things happen when good people are silent – or indifferent!

Why should you pay close attention to what is happening in global sports and Olympics, even if you are indifferent to them? Because just like anywhere else, if you look the other way, they’ll sneak in NWO before you know it!

The modern Olympics movement was started in the end of 19th century by the French Pierre de Coubertin. Russia is presently rebalancing the severely tilted to the West world, which has become utterly imbalanced, with an unfair advantage assigned to the West, at the expense of the rest of the globe. It is fitting that an era of the West will end in the disbanding or slow dying of the Western initiative of the modern Olympics.

This FREE LADA RAY’S INVESTIGATIVE REPORT

includes some damning evidence, Lada’s bold predictions & recommendations:

-A summary of facts in the anti-Russia hybrid war in sports
– NTV bomb from the horse’s mouth: proof of US/EU/WADA/USADA/IAAF collusion
– Lada’s complete geopolitical Earth Shift analysis: real reasons for the Russian Rio ban
– Lada’s recommendation: what steps Russia should take to reformat the corrupt global sport & Olympics

Russian team ban from Rio Olympics

Russia lost it’s Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) appeal on Thursday, 7/21, against an Olympic ban on its track-and-field athletes. Russians were holding their breath for the decision, still hoping for some justice from the ‘democratic’ European court. The court located in Switzerland, had some wishy-washy closing words to say: on one hand the appeal cannot be granted because the IAAF (Intl Athletic Federation) ruling is within its rules; on the other hand – how strange that IAAF and WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) waited till June to come out with allegations and issue the ban, thus leaving no time for ‘clean’ athletes to appeal before the start of Rio Olympics on August 5, 2016. The ban was upheld, nevertheless.

But it gets worse: Russia faces a potential blanket Rio 2016 ban after losing appeal against IAAF ruling on track-and-field athletes. The total number of the Russian athletes who were supposed to participate in Rio was 400 before the ban.

The entire Russian track-and-field team, except 1 – about 68 athletes in total – were banned from Rio Olympics participation, including many who never failed a drug test in their life. Why did they single out one random athlete to allow her participation in Rio? Because this one single person is chosen to put a rift within the team and underscore further just ‘how corrupt the entire team is.’

WADA/IAAF/US also tried to seduce some of the athletes to participate in Rio not under the Russian flag, but under a neutral IOC banner, basically denouncing their country. This was a clear provocation designed to create suspicion and rift within Russian society and sports community. There were no takers among track-and-field team. I guarantee if there were any takers, such athletes would have been immediately allowed to compete in Rio.

It has to be mentioned that for most athletes being at the games is a once in a lifetime opportunity and the psychological trauma of being denied that chance can break one’s life. Therefore, giving them a choice to participate at the expense of betraying their country constitutes an especially exquisite torture.

This ban includes 2-time Olympic and 7-time world champion, multiple-time world-record holder Yelena Isinbayeva. Isinbayeva, named more than once World Athlete of the Year and widely known to never take any drugs, recently came back from maternity leave in order to train hard for participation in her last Olympics. Isinbayeva is one of the best known names in the contemporary sport and she was the spokesperson for the Russian team during the CAS appeal.

Yelena Isinbayeva has been very outspoken about the injustice of the IAAF/WADA decision, and the attack on Russian athletes based on political motives. It is interesting that most world’s national athletic federations have been silent about the decision, while the retired athletes and sports bureaucrats internationally spoke out against it.

Meanwhile, it has been announced that ten countries demanded Russian blanket ban, among these: USA, Canada, UK, Switzerland and Germany. A British competitor of Yelena Isinbayeva said that she (Isinbayeva) ‘doesn’t deserve justice because she is a heterosexual (aka, not gay!), and Putin supporter(!).’ Just imagine how much her competitors have hated her coming back after childbirth and how much they are afraid of her!

…..

I strongly urge everyone, who is indefferent to the direction our world is heading to read the full report here: LADA RAY REPORT: End of Olympics? Plot to Remove Russia from International Sports Revealed

Germany Preparing for War Against Russia (reblog)

This is a reblog of http://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2016/06/09/germany-preparing-for-war-against-russia.html

Investigative historian Eric Zuesse is the author, most recently, of They’re Not Even Close: The Democratic vs. Republican Economic Records, 1910-2010, and of CHRIST’S VENTRILOQUISTS: The Event that Created Christianity.

According to a report issued on June 6th in German Economic News (Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten, or DWN), the German government is preparing to go to war against Russia, and has in draft-form a Bundeswehr report declaring Russia to be an enemy nation. DWN says: “The Russian secret services have apparently thoroughly studied the paper. In advance of the paper’s publication, a harsh note of protest has been sent to Berlin: The head of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Russian State Duma, Alexei Puschkow, has posted the Twitter message: ‘The decision of the German government declaring Russia to be an enemy shows Merkel’s subservience to the Obama administration.’”

Back on February 17th, DWN had reported that German Chancellor Merkel “will develop a new military doctrine” declaring, “The ‘annexation’ of Crimea by Russia is the basis for military action against Moscow.” Apparently, that prior report will soon be fulfilled.

Not mentioned in the DWN articles — nor anywhere in Western ‘news’ media — is a crucial fact, that the head of America’s ‘private CIA’ firm Stratfor acknowledged only when addressing a Russian-speaking audience: that (in English) the overthrow of Ukraine’s President in Russia’s neighboring nation of Ukraine during February 2014 was “the most blatant coup in history.” Extensive video documentation exists demonstrating that it was a coup, and even demonstrating that the Obama Administration had selected Ukraine’s post-coup leader 22 days prior to his being formally appointed by the Ukrainian parliament. Furthermore, the only detailed scholarly study of the evidence that has been performed came to the same conclusion — that it was a U.S. coup. The last month before the coup was incredibly violent, with Obama’s hired fascists attacking the government’s security forces brutally: Here is some of the bloodshed from the prior month, on January 21st, then January 22nd, then January 25th. Moreover, immediately after the overthrow, when the EU sent its own investigator into Kiev to report back on how the overthrow had taken place, he too reported that it had been a coup. Subsequently revealed was that the Obama Administration had started preparing the coup inside the U.S. Embassy in Kiev by no later than 1 March 2013 — almost a year prior to the coup. Also, the even earlier preparation for the coup, extending through decades, on the part of CIA-affiliated ‘nonprofit’ or NGO organizations (funded by Western aristocrats and their corporations), laying the groundwork for this coup, has been brilliantly documented at some online sites. None of this information has been widely published — it’s virtually not at all published in the West. Though the potential audience for it might be vast (especially since Western publics pay much of the tab for this operation and yet receive none of the benefits from the resultant looting of Ukraine, which goes all to aristocrats in the U.S. and allied aristocracies), the market in the West for reporting it, is virtually nil, because the market is the West’s news media, and they’ve all (except for a few small ones like this) been taken over by the aristocracy, and serve the aristocracy — not the public (their audiences, whom they’re in business to deceive). The aristocracy’s companies advertise in, and thereby fund, most of those ‘news’ media, and the aristocracy’s governments fund the rest — and the public pays for that, too, not just by being manipulated to vote for the aristocracy’s politicians, but by being taxed to pay what the NGOs and their aristocrats don’t (so the public are buying the weapons etc.). It’s a vast money-funnel from the many, to the few.

Though the transfer of Crimea from Ukraine to Russia is treated by Western ‘news’ media as having been a ‘conquest’ by Russia, and as being Russia’s ‘seizure’ of Crimea, and Russia’s ‘stealing’ Crimea, nothing of the sort is true (and Crimeans had good reason to be terrified of the Obama-coup regime that had just been installed, from which Russia saved Crimeans), but the lie needs to be promulgated in order for the aristocracy’s invasion of Russia to be able to organized and carried out.

Unfortunately, the reason why this U.S coup in Ukraine has still not been reported in the West, is that to make it public to Westerners would jeopardize not only the Western economic sanctions against Russia after Russia accepted the overwhelming decision by Crimeans to separate from the post-coup Ukrainian government, but would also jeopardize the preparations by all of NATO to go to war against Russia: both the sanctions and the invasion would have no basis and no support among Western publics. All of that (the sanctions, and now the pouring of troops and weapons onto and near Russia’s borders for a possible invasion of Russia) would no longer be at all palatable by Western publics, if this history — that it all began by a violent U.S. coup in Ukraine — were to become known before the U.S. and NATO invasion occurs. So it all remains, instead, suppressed in the ‘democratic’ West.

So: please email this article’s URL address (which is immediately above this article), to friends, so as to spread to them the word, that NATO is preparing an invasion of Russia. There’s no way that the ‘news’ media they see are likely to tell them (until it’s already too late).


Read also Paul Craig Roberts latest article Armageddon Approaches.

Why does NATO scare Moscow with “paper tigers”?

This is A speed translation an analytical article by Rostislav Ishchenko from the 7th of July 2016, published at his channel on Kont.


The NATO summit will begin in Warsaw on Friday. For two days (8 and 9 July), senior officials and generals will discuss a lot of technical and political issues. We are, however, interested in only one item on the agenda of the event. In Poland, the Alliance is going to once again discuss relief measures to the “Russian threat”.

As is the custom in the recent years, the “threat” is felt particularly acutely by the Balts and Poles, who demand the deployment on their territories of additional contingents of Western European and American allies.

Washington and London pretend to be impressed by the fears of the limitrophes, and agitate for meeting requests for strengthening NATO forces on the Russian border. We are talking about dislocation of four battalions.

In terms of the real military strengthening of the block’s abilities on the north-western borders of Russia, this gain is negligible. The American military analysts argue that even a dislocation in the region of four additional full brigades will not allow NATO to hold out much longer in the case of a real military conflict.

In fact, we are only talking about whether it will take the Russian troops one or two weeks to reach the Oder line. Or more precisely, how many US troops will need to be hastily evacuated from Poland and the Baltic states, if suddenly something goes wrong and, contrary to common sense, a military conflict in this area happens.


A US soldier during the 2016 Saber Strike exercises in Estonia.

Protection Poles and the Baltic states as a diversionary tactics

So, the United States believes that the Russian group on the Baltic borders now has absolute superiority, which it is impossible to stop by unfolding of either four or sixteen battalions. At the same time, as a result of NATO’s war hysteria of NATO, Russia decided to deploy in the western direction three new high-grade divisions, and another army corps in Kaliningrad.

One must say that Moscow has the potential to deploy new divisions faster than NATO would be able to collect and deliver their battalions to the area of the limitrophe’s. That is, theoretically, by provoking a military confrontation, the US and NATO impair their strategic position in the region.


Poland today: “If the Russians start pushing too hard, call us.”

A question: Why do they scare Moscow with “paper tigers”, if they know that as a result they will be worse off?

And, yes, they know it. Not least because Washington, which was initially swearing to deliver all four of the desired battalions by themselves, insisted on the separation of the burden in half – two battalions from the US and two from Western European allies. The Germans and the French (and who else would allocate the battalions, if not them) are not enthusiastic. And quite a lot of time will pass between the principal decision and the actual appearance of the troops.

Not only in Moscow, but also in European capitals they are well aware that in case of war, a battalion or two would not make a difference. European politicians, though sometimes pretending to be naive, are well aware that millions of Germans and French, who would be happily trying on helmets and flak jackets and rushing off to the eastern front to protect “European values” in the face of Latvians and Poles, is the story of fantasy. And yet the US successfully force through the NATO program of “protection” of small but very proud Eastern European allies, who regularly pull the tiger’s whiskers, feeling drunken from their own boldness.


Joint parachuting of American, British and Polish troops during Anakonda-2016 on Polish territory.

The answer to the question – why is it necessary – could be obtained based on the area of ​​concentration of the main Russian group. Except for the Kaliningrad exclave, which is under threat simply by virtue of its isolation, more than half of the newly formed units are concentrated in the south-west of Russia, near the Ukrainian border, on which Kiev has already thrown some tantrums.

On the eve of the NATO summit, a confirmation that Moscow considers the south-western direction as the most explosive is, was given in a statement of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Sergey Lavrov.

He warned our western friends and partners that, according to the available information, in the near future Kiev can organise a large-scale provocation that could lead to the resumption of full-scale hostilities in the area of ​​the civil conflict in the Donbass.

Who needs new territories

Let us put two and two together, and add to this the undisguised (for the past two and a half years) desire of the USA to tie the hands of Russia by drawing it into a full-scale conflict in Ukraine. Let us not forget that it was the Balts and the Poles, who repeatedly promised to provide military support to Kiev in case of a “Russian aggression”.


Polish soldiers during international exercises Rapid Trident-2016 in Lvov region, Ukraine.

Recall also that a number of border states – the Eastern European members of NATO – are having problems with the Ukrainian territories inhabited by their respective minorities and formerly being part of the these countries. In addition to traditional Poland, Hungary and Romania, even the Bulgarian government has expressed concerns about the protection of the rights of compatriots and supported the idea of ​​creation in Ukraine of a Bulgarian autonomy.

What do we get? The high risk of a sharp intensification of the Ukrainian conflict together with its simultaneous internationalization, with the participation of the Eastern European members of NATO. Of these, it is Poland and the Baltic States (exactly the countries that were promised the new battalions) are the most militantly set.

And now let us turn to history. In 1939, the courage of Warsaw, which rejected all German demands and literally longing for war, was backed by the British and French guarantees. Polish army was numerically comparable with the German. They did not yet know in Poland about the real overwhelming technical superiority of the Reich, and the absolute intellectual superiority of its general staff.

The military leaders of the country believed that they would be easily able to hold out for a few weeks or even a couple of months. Then the French would start an offensive: French army at the time was considered to be strongest in the world (wrongly, but no one knew about it), and with them would come the British. And after that the Poles were going to share the spoils of war, and to acquire new territories. By the way, the very same East Prussia, a third of which now comprises the Kaliningrad region.

Is a blockade of the Kaliningrad region possible

In general, to encourage Eastern European cannon fodder for the war, it was necessary to create an illusion of security and proximity to an easy victory.

In the first half of the twentieth century, this illusion was provided by the Anglo-French guarantee. Now simple NATO guarantees are not enough. Even limitrophe’s became smarter and doubt that Americans (and Europeans) will risk of full-scale war with a nuclear power because of the ambitions of Riga and Warsaw. Now contingents of US and Western Europe in their respective territories should become such a guarantee.

Limitrophes believe that in the event of hostilities, these forces will inevitably fall under attack. That is, in actuality the bigger partners would enter a war automatically – through the fact of death of their soldiers.

And the passage of the internal procedures, required for each individual NATO country would become involved in the conflict as part of the block, would be fast tracked in the event of an attack by the “insidious Russia” on the “peaceful American soldiers”.

This, in turn, means that the limitrophes, who had already long since gone over the brink in their Russophobia, will now completely lose their head from courageousness.

Very simple. In the event of a start of full-scale hostilities in Ukraine, it won’t be a problem to once again accuse Russia of aggression. And then, in accordance to giving assistance to the “young democracy” they would not even need to cross the border. It is sufficient to organize a blockade of the Kaliningrad region.

Not only a blockade is a hostile act, which is equated by the international law with military aggression. Moscow will in any case have to break through it. The region, Navy and the Army can not exist without communications with Big Land. And they can fully try to sink the ships and shoot down planes, which try to break the blockade, all the while crying that it was Russia attacking.


Soldiers of the Polish and American armies during the Anakonda-2016 exercises on the territory of Poland.

And then the limitrophes (just like the Poles in 1939) believe that in the face of the inevitable (in their opinion) American intervention, Russia would retreat.

By moving the Baltic pawn in the form of the four battalions (half of which is not theirs), the US is trying to solve a problem that they still didn’t man resolved – creating an outbreak of the Russian-European military confrontation. While they themselves are going to remain outside the conflict.

Firstly, no one knows when more battalions will arrive. Secondly, it is a lot easier to promptly evacuate a couple of battalions, than it was for the British to evacuate nearly 340 thousand of their own, French and Belgian soldiers from Dunkirk in 1940.

So that the risk of conflict comes not from the battalions incapable of anything, but from the minds of inadequate politicians that learn nothing from history.